[B-Greek] ARTOS AZUMOS (Thread from 1997)

Steven Cox stevencox_backonbgreek at yahoo.co.uk
Tue Apr 6 10:46:10 EDT 2010

Hello BGreekers
A favour more that a question on an ancient thread:

 Fitzmyer (Anchor Luke p.1399) states > That ARTOS can mean "unleavened bread" is seen from the LXX of Exod 29:2 (= 
Hebrew ... Cf. Philo De Spec Leg 2.28 § 158; Josephus, Ant. 3.6,6 § 142. <

LXX Ex29:2 turns out to be ARTOS AZUMOS, which demonstrates that ARTOS AZUMOS means "unleavened bread" but doesn't show that ARTOS on its own would naturally mean that. I was wondering if someone who has easier access to Philo than me here now would be kind to check Special Laws 2:158 and see if it is ARTOS AZUMOS or just ARTOS for the unleavened bread in question. Sorry about this. :)

Re: The bread of communion

From: David L. Moore (dvdmoore at ix.netcom.com)

Date: Wed Apr 30 1997 - 16:41:28 EDT

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John Pedraja wrote:

>Hello staff, hello students,


>I signed onto this group for the answer to this particular passage. 


>Please be as detailed (technically/grammatically/exegetically) 

>as you wish in your answers.


>It is to my understanding that in all of the following passages, 

>the word "bread" is APTOS. By standard definition, one of the

>meanings of this word is "raised bread." 


>Luke 22:19 And he took bread, and gave thanks, and brake it, and gave unto

>them, saying, This is my body which is given for you: this do in remembrance

>of me.


>Mark 14:22 And as they did eat, Jesus took bread, and blessed, and brake it,

>and gave to them, and said, Take, eat: this is my body.


>1 Cor 10:16 The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of

>the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the

>body of Christ?


>My question to the staff/group of students is this. Was the 

>bread given for communion raised bread?

        A quick check of some references in the Septuagint (LXX) indicates

that the technical term for unleavened bread there is simply the adjective

AZUMOS (unleavened) with the Greek article, sometimes used in masculine, and

sometimes in neuter (the latter may refer to any sort of unleavened baked

goods).  See references at Gen. 19:3 and Ex. 12:8 among others.  

        Nevertheless, in general reference, unleavened bread may be referred

to as ARTOS.  So we find that in Gen. 18:6 that Abraham tells Sarah to

quickly prepare, from three measures of flour, bread cooked under the coals

- certainly unleavened bread - which he has referred to as ARTOS in v. 5.

        There are quite a few references relating to the Last Supper that

seems to indicate that the bread was unleavened.  Mark 14:12, for instance,

mentions hEMERAi TWN AZUMWN as the context of the supper.  

        It also appears that in reference to the loaf itself, ARTOS would be

used rather than AZUMOS alone.  So, in Lev. 8:26 we have APO TOU


        One would have to take into account the couple of centuries between

the LXX and the NT, but language relating to religious observance tends to

be fairly persistent, so we can probably safely use the LXX to shed light on

this matter.

David Moore

David L. Moore

Miami, Florida, USA

Southeastern Spanish District of the A/G Dept. of Education

E-mail: dvdmoore at ix.netcom.com

Home Page: http://members.aol.com/dvdmoore


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