[B-Greek] hPER DE

Elizabeth Kline kline_dekooning at earthlink.net
Wed May 27 18:39:24 EDT 2009


While working through the Iver's comments on PERI DE in Paul, I was  
reading Helma Dik:2007 [1] and her discussion of themes, topics, and  
so forth. Rather than use her examples from Thucid. which might not go  
down well here, I found a passage 2Mac. 11:20 which illustrates a  
fronted constituent, introduced by hPER DE, which is used to link the  
following statement with the shared information from the preceding  
context.

2Mac. 11:20 ὑπὲρ δὲ τούτων καὶ τῶν κατὰ  
μέρος ἐντέταλμαι τούτοις τε καὶ  
τοῖς παρ᾿ ἐμοῦ διαλεχθῆναι ὑμῖν

2MAC. 11:20 hUPER DE TOUTWN KAI TWN KATA MEROS ENTETALMAI TOUTOIS TE  
KAI TOIS PAR᾿ EMOU DIALECQHNAI hUMIN

The fronted constituent  hUPER DE TOUTWN KAI TWN KATA MEROS is  
anaphoric, summing up what has been said in the immediately preceding  
context and therefor can be assumed to be shared information. It  
serves to tie the former statements to ENTETALMAI TOUTOIS TE KAI TOIS  
PAR᾿ EMOU DIALECQHNAI hUMIN.

For those who might be interested, Helma Dik's example (2.8) on page  
35 is taken from Thuc. 6.9.3

καὶ πρὸς μὲν τοὺς τρόπους τοὺς  
ὑμετέρους ἀσθενὴς ἄν μου ὁ λόγος εἴη

KAI PROS MEN TOUS TROPOUS TOUS hUMETEROUS ASQENHS AN MOU hO LOGOS EIH

"Against tempers, indeed, like yours my words would be unavailing, ... "

According to Helma Dik's analysis, the fronted constituent ("theme")  
is PROS MEN TOUS TROPOUS TOUS hUMETEROUS and the main clause  
ASQENHS ... EIH. She states "Theme constituents form a separate  
intonation unit. Such separate units are especially suitable when the  
speaker introduces a new (Discourse) topic, as in (2.8) ..."

In the example from 2Mac. 11:20 the fronted constituent is used, not  
to introduce a new topic but to sum up a topic before making a  
concluding statement about it. In other words, the Thuc. 6.9.3 example  
is cataphoric where as the  2Mac. 11:20 example is anaphoric.

Elizabeth Kline

[1]Word Order in Greek Tragic Dialogue. Helma Dik 2007 Oxford UP page  
26-30,35


Thucydides Hist., Historiae (0003: 001)
“Thucydidis historiae, 2 vols.”, Ed. Jones, H.S., Powell, J.E.
Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1:1942 (1st edn. rev.); 2:1942 (2nd edn.  
rev.), Repr. 1:1970; 2:1967.
Book 6, chapter 9, section 3, line 1

    Ἡ μὲν ἐκκλησία περὶ παρασκευῆς  
τῆς ἡμετέρας ἥδε
ξυνελέγη, καθ' ὅτι χρὴ ἐς Σικελίαν  
ἐκπλεῖν· ἐμοὶ μέντοι
δοκεῖ καὶ περὶ αὐτοῦ τούτου ἔτι  
χρῆναι σκέψασθαι, εἰ ἄμεινόν
ἐστιν ἐκπέμπειν τὰς ναῦς, καὶ μὴ  
οὕτω βραχείᾳ βουλῇ περὶ
μεγάλων πραγμάτων ἀνδράσιν  
ἀλλοφύλοις πειθομένους πόλε-
μον οὐ προσήκοντα ἄρασθαι. καίτοι  
ἔγωγε καὶ τιμῶμαι ἐκ
τοῦ τοιούτου καὶ ἧσσον ἑτέρων περὶ  
τῷ ἐμαυτοῦ σώματι
ὀρρωδῶ, νομίζων ὁμοίως ἀγαθὸν  
πολίτην εἶναι ὃς ἂν καὶ τοῦ
σώματός τι καὶ τῆς οὐσίας προνοῆται·  
μάλιστα γὰρ ἂν ὁ
τοιοῦτος καὶ τὰ τῆς πόλεως δι'  
ἑαυτὸν βούλοιτο ὀρθοῦσθαι.
ὅμως δὲ οὔτε ἐν τῷ πρότερον χρόνῳ  
διὰ τὸ προτιμᾶσθαι
εἶπον παρὰ γνώμην οὔτε νῦν, ἀλλὰ ᾗ  
ἂν γιγνώσκω βέλτιστα,
ἐρῶ. καὶ πρὸς μὲν τοὺς τρόπους τοὺς  
ὑμετέρους ἀσθενὴς
ἄν μου ὁ λόγος εἴη, εἰ τά τε  
ὑπάρχοντα σῴζειν παραινοίην
καὶ μὴ τοῖς ἑτοίμοις περὶ τῶν  
ἀφανῶν καὶ μελλόντων κιν-
δυνεύειν· ὡς δὲ οὔτε ἐν καιρῷ  
σπεύδετε οὔτε ῥᾴδιά ἐστι
κατασχεῖν ἐφ' ἃ ὥρμησθε, ταῦτα  
διδάξω.

  


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