[B-Greek] Euripides : AFRODITH... EPISHMOS EN BROTOIS
stevencox_backonbgreek at yahoo.co.uk
Mon May 18 19:38:14 EDT 2009
(1) Following on from the 1992 TLG search question about "man of one wife" and "wife of one husband" --- and resounding failure to find any trace of an idiom in TLG --- the question I now ask about Romans 16:7 is going to look as though I personally have an interest in the egalitarian debate. *I don't* - it's something I managed to avoid like the plague in the 90s on B-Greek... it's simply what I'm being asked :(
(2) like every good schoolboy should I first went to LSJ to check use of EPISHMOS and easily found Euripides Hipp.106 : AFRODITH... EPISHMOS EN BROTOIS - "Aphrodite .. esteemed among mortals" which seems a too-good-to-be-true parallel of Andronikos and Junia EPISHMOS EN APOSTOLOIS.
(3) also had a quick browse of some of the other texts for EPISHMOS on Perseus.
(4) I then Googled [Junia "EN BROTOIS"] on B-Greek archives, and came up with several posts including the one from Stephen Carlson, and comments after by Carl, below showing two cases of EPISHEMOS + genitive:
3 Macc. 6:1 ELEAZAROS DE TIS ANHR EPISHMOS TWN APO THS CWRAS hEIRWN "And Eleazar, who was a prominent man of the priests from the country"
and Mart. Poly. 14:1 KRIOS EPISHMOS EK MEGALOU POIMNIOU "a prominent ram from a great flock."
(5) I then did some digging - and was amazed to find a whole wikipedia article on Romans 16:7 (which must win a prize, does anyone know of any other NT verse which has its own wikipedia page?) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Junia
(6) Get to the Questions! ..... has anyone sighted Belleville or Bauckham below and if so are there any shattering grammatical revelations?
(7) Does anyone have any other sources outside Euripides Hippolytus 106, 3 Macc. 6:1 and Mart. Poly. 14:1 which would illustrate EPISHMOS EN+, or EPISHMOS EK+
(8) For a bit of fun (since the above isn't much fun) I had a peek at
http://multilingualbible.com/romans/16-7.htm and was amused at how many other languages can be either totally ambiguous or totally clear regarding whether the structure "A is X in/from group B." includes or excludes A from membership of the group. Just so I can impress/intimidate someone at church buffets, is there a clever grammatical term I should know for this distinction? :)
In 2001, Michael Burer and Daniel B. Wallace wrote a journal article
entitled "Was Junia Really An Apostle? A Re-examination of Romans
16.7", NTS 47. In it Burer and Wallace, accepting that Junia was a
woman, asserted that she was well known to the Apostles rather than
prominent among the Apostles. The working hypothesis is that if Paul
had meant to communicate that Junia was prominent among the Apostles,
then he would have used episamoi with a genitive. That is the way
inclusion within a group is indicated within Greek. He used episamoi
with en and the dative, which according to their hypothesis means they
are excluded from the group. There are no exceptions. This is
articulated above by the comment that the Jews were not among the
Recently, Linda Belleville, Richard Bauckham, and Eldon Epp have
taken on the task of correcting some of the above findings pertaining
to Junia. Belleville's article is in NTS and is titled
"Iounian...episamoi en tois apostolois: A Re-examination of Romans 16.7
in Light of Primary Source Materials" NTS 51 (2005). Bauckham's book
"Gospel Women" devotes several pages to interacting, refuting, and
correcting the Burer and Wallace article. Epp in his book "Junia: The
First Woman Apostle" covers the whole gamut pertaining to Junia.
Stephen C. Carlson
scarlson at mindspring.com
Sun Apr 2 18:30:56 EDT 2000
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At 10:27 AM 3/31/00 -0600, Carl W. Conrad wrote:
>The text: ASPASASQE ANDRONIKON KAI IOUNIAN TOUS SUGGENEIS MOU KAI
>SUNAICMALWTOUS MOU, hOITINES EISIN EPISHMOI EN TOIS APOSTOLOIS, hOI KAI PRO
>EMOU GEGONAN EN CRISTWi.
>For my part, I can only say that readers of this text who come to it
>already convinced that a woman could not have been an APOSTOLOS will find a
>way to make EPISHMOI EN TOIS APOSTOLOIS function as the grammatical
>equivalent of TIMHQEISAI hUPO TWN APOSTOLWN, while readers who are
>open-minded to the possibility that a woman MAY have been an APOSTOLOS will
>find it most natural to understand the phrase EPISHMOI EN TOIS APOSTOLOIS
>as "distinguished among the apostles." I have more sympathy (just a little
>bit--not very much) for those who still want to believe that IOUNIAN is
>masculine than for those who want to understand EPISHMOS EN TOIS APOSTOLOIS
>to mean "CONSIDERED prominent BY the apostles."
Well, I have the opposite opinion. The masculine IOUNIAN
is untenable, but the view EPISHMOI EN TOIS APOSTOLOIS =
"prominent among (= in the opinion of) the apostles" is
First, other examples of the phrase EPISHMOI EN ... support
this construction. For example, Euripides, Hippolytus 106,
refers to Aphrodite as KAPISTHMOS EN BROTOIS "prominent among
mortals." The goddess Aphrodite was not, of course, a mortal,
but merely well thought of my mortals.
Second, other examples of EN shows a primary locative, but
secondary agentival, sense. For example, Rom 2:24 TO GAR
ONOMA TOU QEOU DI hUMAS BLASFHMEITAI EN TOIS EQNESIN. "For
the name of God because of us is blasphemed among (by)
the Gentiles." Other examples include Luke 16:15 TO EN
ANQRWPOIS hUYHLON "what is exalted among (by) people"
and John 7:12 KAI GOGGUSMOS PERI AUTOU HN POLUS EN TOIS
OCLOIS "and there was much murmuring about him among (by)
Finally, if Paul intended to mean that Andronicus and
Junia were prominent apostles, he should have used a
partitive construction as in: 3 Macc. 6:1 ELEAZAROS DE
TIS ANHR EPISHMOS TWN APO THS CWRAS hEIRWN "And Eleazar,
who was a prominent man of the priests from the country"
and Mart. Poly. 14:1 KRIOS EPISHMOS EK MEGALOU POIMNIOU
"a prominent ram from a great flock."
For these reasons, I conclude that Rom 16:7 means that
Andronicus and Junia were well thought of among (by)
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