[B-Greek] DIA phrase with an infinitive

Elizabeth Kline kline_dekooning at earthlink.net
Thu Jun 18 13:55:04 EDT 2009


On Jun 18, 2009, at 7:03 AM, Ian W. Scott wrote:

> I'm working on a passage in the Letter of Aristeas and am trying to
> clarify the sense of a prepositional phrase. The clause is an  
> infinitive
> clause: [(H NOMOQESIA] DIA QEOU GEGONENAI. Ordinarily I wouldn't take
> QEOU here as the agent directly responsible for the legislation's
> appearance, since GEGONENAI is a middle/deponent and not a true  
> passive.
> I would assume that DIA QEOU is indicating a less specific  
> relationship
> between God's action and the legislation. "The legislation appeared
> because of God" or something like that (in context it doesn't make  
> sense
> for QEOU to be the intermediate agent). What I'm wondering, though, is
> whether I'm missing an idiom here. What matters to me, exegetically,  
> is
> whether this is a straightforward statement that God directly authored
> the legislation.  I don't think it is. I think it's more vague than
> that. But I'm looking for some second opinions. Any thoughts?

My first thought is, why not cite the text


Aristeae Epistula, Aristeae epistula ad Philocratem (1183: 001)
“Lettre d'Aristée à Philocrate”, Ed. Pelletier, A.
Paris: Cerf, 1962; Sources chrétiennes 89.
Section 313, line 2

ῶσθαι. Παρανεγνώσθη δὲ αὐτῷ καὶ  
πάντα, καὶ λίαν ἐξεθαύ-
μασε τὴν τοῦ νομοθέτου διάνοιαν. Καὶ  
πρὸς τὸν Δημήτριον
εἶπε· Πῶς τηλικούτων συντετελεσμένων  
οὐδεὶς ἐπεβάλετο τῶν
ἱστορικῶν ἢ ποιητῶν ἐπιμνησθῆναι;
          Ἐκεῖνος δὲ ἔφη·
Διὰ τὸ σεμνὴν εἶναι τὴν νομοθεσίαν  
καὶ διὰ θεοῦ γεγονέναι·
καὶ τῶν ἐπιβαλλομένων τινὲς ὑπὸ  
τοῦ θεοῦ πληγέντες τῆς
ἐπιβολῆς ἀπέστησαν.
          Καὶ γὰρ ἔφησεν ἀκηκοέναι Θεο-
πόμπου, διότι μέλλων τινὰ τῶν  
προηρμηνευμένων ἐπισφα-
λέστερον ἐκ τοῦ νόμου προσιστορεῖν  
ταραχὴν λάβοι τῆς


Aristeae Epistula, Aristeae epistula ad Philocratem (1183: 001)
“Lettre d'Aristée à Philocrate”, Ed. Pelletier, A.
Paris: Cerf, 1962; Sources chrétiennes 89.
Section 313, line 2

WSQAI. PARANEGNWSQH DE AUTWi KAI PANTA, KAI LIAN EXEQAU-
MASE THN TOU NOMOQETOU DIANOIAN. KAI PROS TON DHMHTRION
EIPE· PWS THLIKOUTWN SUNTETELESMENWN OUDEIS EPEBALETO TWN
hISTORIKWN H POIHTWN EPIMNHSQHNAI;
          EKEINOS DE EFH·
DIA TO SEMNHN EINAI THN NOMOQESIAN KAI DIA QEOU GEGONENAI·
KAI TWN EPIBALLOMENWN TINES hUPO TOU QEOU PLHGENTES THS
EPIBOLHS APESTHSAN.
          KAI GAR EFHSEN AKHKOENAI QEO-
POMPOU, DIOTI MELLWN TINA TWN PROHRMHNEUMENWN EPISFA-
LESTERON EK TOU NOMOU PROSISTOREIN TARACHN LABOI THS

I collected some samples of DIA [TOU] QEOU. I was somewhat surprised  
to discover that this is not a common expression in the GNT. As you  
will see in the LXX samples, agency isn't the only way to read DIA  
[TOU] QEOU. Galatians 1:1 and 4:7 both offer some interesting problems.

Gal. 1:1 Παῦλος ἀπόστολος οὐκ ἀπ᾿  
ἀνθρώπων οὐδὲ δι᾿ ἀνθρώπου ἀλλὰ  
διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ θεοῦ πατρὸς  
τοῦ ἐγείραντος αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν,

1Cor. 1:9 πιστὸς ὁ θεός, δι᾿ οὗ ἐκλήθητε  
εἰς κοινωνίαν τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ  
Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν.

Gal. 4:7 ὥστε οὐκέτι εἶ δοῦλος ἀλλὰ  
υἱός· εἰ δὲ υἱός, καὶ κληρονόμος  
διὰ θεοῦ.

Gen. 4:1 Αδαμ δὲ ἔγνω Ευαν τὴν γυναῖκα  
αὐτοῦ καὶ συλλαβοῦσα ἔτεκεν τὸν  
Καιν καὶ εἶπεν ἐκτησάμην ἄνθρωπον  
διὰ τοῦ θεοῦ

Gen. 40:8 οἱ δὲ εἶπαν αὐτῷ ἐνύπνιον  
εἴδομεν καὶ ὁ συγκρίνων οὐκ ἔστιν  
αὐτό εἶπεν δὲ αὐτοῖς Ιωσηφ οὐχὶ  
διὰ τοῦ θεοῦ ἡ διασάφησις αὐτῶν  
ἐστιν διηγήσασθε οὖν μοι

Ex. 22:8 κατὰ πᾶν ῥητὸν ἀδίκημα περί τε  
μόσχου καὶ ὑποζυγίου καὶ προβάτου  
καὶ ἱματίου καὶ πάσης ἀπωλείας τῆς  
ἐγκαλουμένης ὅ τι οὖν ἂν ᾖ ἐνώπιον  
τοῦ θεοῦ ἐλεύσεται ἡ κρίσις  
ἀμφοτέρων καὶ ὁ ἁλοὺς διὰ τοῦ θεοῦ  
ἀποτείσει διπλοῦν τῷ πλησίον

1Sam. 22:10 καὶ ἠρώτα αὐτῷ διὰ τοῦ θεοῦ  
καὶ ἐπισιτισμὸν ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ καὶ  
τὴν ῥομφαίαν Γολιαδ τοῦ ἀλλοφύλου  
ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ

1Sam. 22:13 καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ Σαουλ ἵνα τί  
συνέθου κατ᾿ ἐμοῦ σὺ καὶ ὁ υἱὸς  
Ιεσσαι δοῦναί σε αὐτῷ ἄρτον καὶ  
ῥομφαίαν καὶ ἐρωτᾶν αὐτῷ διὰ τοῦ  
θεοῦ θέσθαι αὐτὸν ἐπ᾿ ἐμὲ εἰς  
ἐχθρὸν ὡς ἡ ἡμέρα αὕτη

1Sam. 22:15 ἦ σήμερον ἦργμαι ἐρωτᾶν αὐτῷ  
διὰ τοῦ θεοῦ μηδαμῶς μὴ δότω ὁ  
βασιλεὺς κατὰ τοῦ δούλου αὐτοῦ  
λόγον καὶ ἐφ᾿ ὅλον τὸν οἶκον τοῦ  
πατρός μου ὅτι οὐκ ᾔδει ὁ δοῦλος ὁ  
σὸς ἐν πᾶσιν τούτοις ῥῆμα μικρὸν ἢ  
μέγα

1Chr. 14:10 καὶ ἠρώτησεν Δαυιδ διὰ τοῦ  
θεοῦ λέγων εἰ ἀναβῶ ἐπὶ τοὺς  
ἀλλοφύλους καὶ δώσεις αὐτοὺς εἰς  
τὰς χεῖράς μου καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ  
κύριος ἀνάβηθι καὶ δώσω αὐτοὺς εἰς  
τὰς χεῖράς σου

GAL. 1:1 PAULOS APOSTOLOS OUK AP᾿ ANQRWPWN OUDE DI᾿ ANQRWPOU ALLA  
DIA IHSOU CRISTOU KAI QEOU PATROS TOU EGEIRANTOS AUTON EK NEKRWN,

1COR. 1:9 PISTOS hO QEOS, DI᾿ hOU EKLHQHTE EIS KOINWNIAN TOU hUIOU  
AUTOU IHSOU CRISTOU TOU KURIOU hHMWN.

GAL. 4:7 hWSTE OUKETI EI DOULOS ALLA hUIOS· EI DE hUIOS, KAI  
KLHRONOMOS DIA QEOU.

GEN. 4:1 ADAM DE EGNW EUAN THN GUNAIKA AUTOU KAI SULLABOUSA ETEKEN TON  
KAIN KAI EIPEN EKTHSAMHN ANQRWPON DIA TOU QEOU

GEN. 40:8 hOI DE EIPAN AUTWi ENUPNION EIDOMEN KAI hO SUGKRINWN OUK  
ESTIN AUTO EIPEN DE AUTOIS IWSHF OUCI DIA TOU QEOU hH DIASAFHSIS AUTWN  
ESTIN DIHGHSASQE OUN MOI

EX. 22:8 KATA PAN hRHTON ADIKHMA PERI TE MOSCOU KAI hUPOZUGIOU KAI  
PROBATOU KAI hIMATIOU KAI PASHS APWLEIAS THS EGKALOUMENHS hO TI OUN AN  
Hi ENWPION TOU QEOU ELEUSETAI hH KRISIS AMFOTERWN KAI hO hALOUS DIA  
TOU QEOU APOTEISEI DIPLOUN TWi PLHSION

1SAM. 22:10 KAI HRWTA AUTWi DIA TOU QEOU KAI EPISITISMON EDWKEN AUTWi  
KAI THN hROMFAIAN GOLIAD TOU ALLOFULOU EDWKEN AUTWi

1SAM. 22:13 KAI EIPEN AUTWi SAOUL hINA TI SUNEQOU KAT᾿ EMOU SU KAI hO  
hUIOS IESSAI DOUNAI SE AUTWi ARTON KAI hROMFAIAN KAI ERWTAN AUTWi DIA  
TOU QEOU QESQAI AUTON EP᾿ EME EIS ECQRON hWS hH hHMERA hAUTH

1SAM. 22:15 H SHMERON HRGMAI ERWTAN AUTWi DIA TOU QEOU MHDAMWS MH DOTW  
hO BASILEUS KATA TOU DOULOU AUTOU LOGON KAI EF᾿ hOLON TON OIKON TOU  
PATROS MOU hOTI OUK HiDEI hO DOULOS hO SOS EN PASIN TOUTOIS hRHMA  
MIKRON H MEGA

1CHR. 14:10 KAI HRWTHSEN DAUID DIA TOU QEOU LEGWN EI ANABW EPI TOUS  
ALLOFULOUS KAI DWSEIS AUTOUS EIS TAS CEIRAS MOU KAI EIPEN AUTWi KURIOS  
ANABHQI KAI DWSW AUTOUS EIS TAS CEIRAS SOU

Here are some extra biblical samples.

Philo Judaeus Phil., Legum allegoriarum libri i–iii (0018: 002)
“Philonis Alexandrini opera quae supersunt, vol. 1”, Ed. Cohn, L.
Berlin: Reimer, 1896, Repr. 1962.
Book 1, section 41, line 5

τοῦ ἀλόγου ὁ νοῦς, παρὸ καὶ Μωυσῆν  
οὐκ ὤκνησεν εἰπεῖν “θεὸν τοῦ
Φαραώ” (Exod. 7, 1). τῶν γὰρ γινομένων τὰ  
μὲν καὶ ὑπὸ θεοῦ
γίνεται καὶ δι' αὐτοῦ, τὰ δὲ ὑπὸ  
θεοῦ μέν, οὐ δι' αὐτοῦ δέ· τὰ μὲν
οὖν ἄριστα καὶ ὑπὸ θεοῦ γέγονε καὶ  
δι' αὐτοῦ· προελθὼν γοῦν ἐρεῖ
ὅτι “ἐφύτευσεν ὁ θεὸς  
παράδεισον” (Gen. 2, 8)· τούτων καὶ ὁ νοῦς
ἐστι· τὸ δὲ ἄλογον ὑπὸ θεοῦ μὲν  
γέγονεν, οὐ διὰ θεοῦ δέ, ἀλλὰ διὰ τοῦ
λογικοῦ τοῦ ἄρχοντός τε καὶ  
βασιλεύοντος ἐν ψυχῇ. “πνοὴν” δέ,  
ἀλλ'
οὐ πνεῦμα, εἴρηκεν, ὡς διαφορᾶς  
οὔσης· τὸ μὲν γὰρ πνεῦμα νενόηται
κατὰ τὴν ἰσχὺν καὶ εὐτονίαν καὶ  
δύναμιν, ἡ δὲ πνοὴ ὡς ἂν αὖρά τίς
ἐστι καὶ ἀναθυμίασις ἠρεμαία καὶ  
πραεῖα. ὁ μὲν οὖν κατὰ τὴν εἰκόνα
γεγονὼς καὶ τὴν ἰδέαν νοῦς  
πνεύματος ἂν λέγοιτο κεκοινωνηκέναι –

Philo Judaeus Phil., Legum allegoriarum libri i–iii (0018: 002)
“Philonis Alexandrini opera quae supersunt, vol. 1”, Ed. Cohn, L.
Berlin: Reimer, 1896, Repr. 1962.
Book 1, section 41, line 5

TOU ALOGOU hO NOUS, PARO KAI MWUSHN OUK WKNHSEN EIPEIN “QEON TOU
FARAW” (Exod. 7, 1). TWN GAR GINOMENWN TA MEN KAI hUPO QEOU
GINETAI KAI DI' AUTOU, TA DE hUPO QEOU MEN, OU DI' AUTOU DE· TA MEN
OUN ARISTA KAI hUPO QEOU GEGONE KAI DI' AUTOU· PROELQWN GOUN EREI
hOTI “EFUTEUSEN hO QEOS PARADEISON” (Gen. 2, 8)· TOUTWN KAI hO NOUS
ESTI· TO DE ALOGON hUPO QEOU MEN GEGONEN, OU DIA QEOU DE, ALLA DIA TOU
LOGIKOU TOU ARCONTOS TE KAI BASILEUONTOS EN YUCHi. “PNOHN” DE, ALL'
OU PNEUMA, EIRHKEN, hWS DIAFORAS OUSHS· TO MEN GAR PNEUMA NENOHTAI
KATA THN ISCUN KAI EUTONIAN KAI DUNAMIN, hH DE PNOH hWS AN AURA TIS
ESTI KAI ANAQUMIASIS HREMAIA KAI PRAEIA. hO MEN OUN KATA THN EIKONA
GEGONWS KAI THN IDEAN NOUS PNEUMATOS AN LEGOITO KEKOINWNHKENAI –


Philo Judaeus Phil., De ebrietate (0018: 011)
“Philonis Alexandrini opera quae supersunt, vol. 2”, Ed. Wendland,  
P.
Berlin: Reimer, 1897, Repr. 1962.
Section 120, line 5

οἷς εἴωθε δωρεῖσθαι πᾶς  
καταπέπληκται, καὶ ὅτῳ μηδὲν μέγα  
τῶν
ἄλλων ὑπείληπται. διὸ καὶ  
πυνθάνεται· “τί τοῦτο ὃ ταχὺ εὗρες,  
ὦ
τέκνον;” τεθαυμακὼς τῆς σπουδαίας  
διαθέσεως τὴν ὀξύτητα· ὁ δὲ εὖ
παθὼν εὐθυβόλως ἀποκρίνεται· “ὃ  
παρέδωκε κύριος ὁ θεός” (Gen.
27, 20)· παραδόσεις γὰρ καὶ ὑφηγήσεις  
βραδεῖαι μὲν αἱ δι' ἀνθρώπων,
ὀξύταται δ' αἱ διὰ θεοῦ, φθάνουσαι  
καὶ τὴν ὀξυτάτην χρόνου κίνησιν.
οἱ μὲν οὖν κατ' ἰσχὺν καὶ δύναμιν  
ἔξαρχοι καὶ ἡγεμόνες τοῦ τὸν ἐπι-
νίκιον καὶ εὐχαριστικὸν ὕμνον  
ᾄδοντος χοροῦ οἱ λεχθέντες εἰσίν, οἱ  
δὲ
κατὰ τροπὴν καὶ ἀσθένειαν τοῦ τὸν  
ἐφ' ἥτταις θρῆνον σφαδάζοντος
ἕτεροι, οὓς οὐ κακίζειν μᾶλλον ἢ  
οἰκτίζεσθαι χρὴ καθάπερ τοὺς τὰ
σώματα ἐκ φύσεως ἐπικήρως ἔχοντας,  
οἷς καὶ ἡ τυχοῦσα νόσου πρό

Philo Judaeus Phil., De ebrietate (0018: 011)
“Philonis Alexandrini opera quae supersunt, vol. 2”, Ed. Wendland,  
P.
Berlin: Reimer, 1897, Repr. 1962.
Section 120, line 5

hOIS EIWQE DWREISQAI PAS KATAPEPLHKTAI, KAI hOTWi MHDEN MEGA TWN
ALLWN hUPEILHPTAI. DIO KAI PUNQANETAI· “TI TOUTO hO TACU hEURES, W
TEKNON;” TEQAUMAKWS THS SPOUDAIAS DIAQESEWS THN OXUTHTA· hO DE EU
PAQWN EUQUBOLWS APOKRINETAI· “hO PAREDWKE KURIOS hO QEOS” (Gen.
27, 20)· PARADOSEIS GAR KAI hUFHGHSEIS BRADEIAI MEN hAI DI' ANQRWPWN,
OXUTATAI D' hAI DIA QEOU, FQANOUSAI KAI THN OXUTATHN CRONOU KINHSIN.
hOI MEN OUN KAT' ISCUN KAI DUNAMIN EXARCOI KAI hHGEMONES TOU TON EPI-
NIKION KAI EUCARISTIKON hUMNON AiDONTOS COROU hOI LECQENTES EISIN, hOI  
DE
KATA TROPHN KAI ASQENEIAN TOU TON EF' hHTTAIS QRHNON SFADAZONTOS
hETEROI, hOUS OU KAKIZEIN MALLON H OIKTIZESQAI CRH KAQAPER TOUS TA
SWMATA EK FUSEWS EPIKHRWS ECONTAS, hOIS KAI hH TUCOUSA NOSOU PRO

Epiphanius Scr. Eccl., Panarion (= Adversus haereses)
Volume 3, page 101, line 9

  Ταῦτα τὰ δύο δένδρα περὶ  
δικαιοσύνης καὶ περὶ ἁμαρτίας  
[τοῦτον]
ἔχει τὸν τρόπον· ὡς δὲ οὗτος ὁ  
βάρβαρος Μάνης διανοεῖται, περὶ θεοῦ
βούλεται λέγειν καὶ περὶ τοῦ  
διαβόλου. καὶ ὅτι περὶ θεοῦ οὐδεὶς
δύναται τολμῆσαι καὶ εἰπεῖν ὅτι  
κακὸν ποιήσει ποτέ (μὴ γένοιτο), καὶ
οὔτε περὶ τοῦ διαβόλου, ὅτι ἀγαθὸν  
ἐργάζεται, τοῦτο δῆλον. ἀλλὰ διὰ
θεοῦ πάντα γίνεται τὰ ἀγαθά. καὶ  
φαῦλον ἐξ αὐτοῦ οὐδὲν κέκτισται
οὐδὲ γίνεται. εἰ δὲ ἐκ διαβόλου  
ἐνεργεῖται πονηρά τινα, ἰδοὺ  
εὑρήκαμεν
καὶ * δι' αὐτοῦ στέφανον πλεκόμενον  
ἁγίοις καὶ βραβεῖον διδόμενον τοῖς
νενικηκόσι. καὶ διέπεσεν ὁ αὐτοῦ  
λόγος. τὸ γὰρ σαπρὸν δένδρον καὶ ἀγα-
θὸν δένδρον περὶ ἀγαθῶν ἔργων  
τυγχάνει καὶ περὶ φαύλων καὶ οὐκ  
ἔστι
περὶ παλαιᾶς διαθήκης καὶ καινῆς,  
καθὼς βούλεται ὁ [τοῦ] Μάνη<ς>,
EPIPHANIUS SCR. ECCL., PANARION (= ADVERSUS HAERESES)
VOLUME 3, PAGE 101, LINE 9

  TAUTA TA DUO DENDRA PERI DIKAIOSUNHS KAI PERI hAMARTIAS [TOUTON]
ECEI TON TROPON· hWS DE hOUTOS hO BARBAROS MANHS DIANOEITAI, PERI QEOU
BOULETAI LEGEIN KAI PERI TOU DIABOLOU. KAI hOTI PERI QEOU OUDEIS
DUNATAI TOLMHSAI KAI EIPEIN hOTI KAKON POIHSEI POTE (MH GENOITO), KAI
OUTE PERI TOU DIABOLOU, hOTI AGAQON ERGAZETAI, TOUTO DHLON. ALLA DIA
QEOU PANTA GINETAI TA AGAQA. KAI FAULON EX AUTOU OUDEN KEKTISTAI
OUDE GINETAI. EI DE EK DIABOLOU ENERGEITAI PONHRA TINA, IDOU hEURHKAMEN
KAI  DI' AUTOU STEFANON PLEKOMENON hAGIOIS KAI BRABEION DIDOMENON TOIS
NENIKHKOSI. KAI DIEPESEN hO AUTOU LOGOS. TO GAR SAPRON DENDRON KAI AGA-
QON DENDRON PERI AGAQWN ERGWN TUGCANEI KAI PERI FAULWN KAI OUK ESTI
PERI PALAIAS DIAQHKHS KAI KAINHS, KAQWS BOULETAI hO [TOU] MANH<S>,



Epiphanius Scr. Eccl., Panarion (= Adversus haereses)
Volume 3, page 429, line 24

ἡ γραφή, μή τί γε κυρίῳ Χριστῷ.
  16. Λεγέτωσαν δὲ ἡμῖν οἱ ἐκθαμβηταὶ  
τῶν προβάτων καὶ πτύρται
τῶν περιστερῶν καὶ σοβηταὶ τῶν τοῦ  
Χριστοῦ ἀρνίων τε καὶ θρεμμάτων,
ποῦ παρεσκευάσθη Μωυσῆς τὴν  
τεσσαρακονθήμερον; ποῦ τὰ πρὸς χρείαν
ἐποιεῖτο Ἠλίας ἐν τῷ Χορρὰ  
χειμάρρῳ, ὁπηνίκα ἄρτον μὲν τὸ  
πρωϊνὸν
ἤσθιε, κρέα δὲ τὸ δειλινὸν ἀπὸ τῆς  
τῶν κοράκων παρακομιδῆς διὰ θεοῦ
προστάγματος; ἠλίθιον γὰρ ἦν τὸ τὴν  
γραφὴν περὶ τούτων λέγειν,
ὡς νῦν τούτοις ἠλίθιον τὸ ἐξετάζειν.  
τίς γὰρ ὠφέλεια ἐν τοῖς τοιούτοις;
ἢ τί τὸ χρήσιμον ἀλλ' ἢ μόνον εἰς  
ἀπιστίαν, τῆς προλήψεως προφάσεις
διὰ ψυχρολογίας καὶ ἀνατροπῆς  
ματαίας ἔχον; λεγέτωσαν δὲ πάλιν  
ἡμῖν,
τίνι τῷ λόγῳ ὅτε ἠθέλησεν ὁ θεὸς  
ἐποίησε τῶν υἱῶν Ἰσραὴλ ἐν

hH GRAFH, MH TI GE KURIWi CRISTWi.
  16. LEGETWSAN DE hHMIN hOI EKQAMBHTAI TWN PROBATWN KAI PTURTAI
TWN PERISTERWN KAI SOBHTAI TWN TOU CRISTOU ARNIWN TE KAI QREMMATWN,
POU PARESKEUASQH MWUSHS THN TESSARAKONQHMERON; POU TA PROS CREIAN
EPOIEITO HLIAS EN TWi CORRA CEIMARRWi, hOPHNIKA ARTON MEN TO PRWI+NON
HSQIE, KREA DE TO DEILINON APO THS TWN KORAKWN PARAKOMIDHS DIA QEOU
PROSTAGMATOS; HLIQION GAR HN TO THN GRAFHN PERI TOUTWN LEGEIN,
hWS NUN TOUTOIS HLIQION TO EXETAZEIN. TIS GAR WFELEIA EN TOIS TOIOUTOIS;
H TI TO CRHSIMON ALL' H MONON EIS APISTIAN, THS PROLHYEWS PROFASEIS
DIA YUCROLOGIAS KAI ANATROPHS MATAIAS ECON; LEGETWSAN DE PALIN hHMIN,
TINI TWi LOGWi hOTE HQELHSEN hO QEOS EPOIHSE TWN hUIWN ISRAHL EN


That should be enough text to get started on this. I am not quite sure  
why agency would be a problem in this context, but agency isn't only  
option. Of course, Danker has Epist.Arist cited under DIA  see BDAG  
p225 A.4.b & A.4.b.beta. Danker's "the originator of the action"  
sounds good to me. Anyway, perhaps this will get the thread started.

Elizabeth Kline







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