[B-Greek] Galatians 1:6-7
srunge at logos.com
Wed Jun 10 14:27:02 EDT 2009
Here is an excerpt from my blog post that accounts for both your cited exception from 2 Cor, and that from Cooper.
"What about εἰ μή? Can it be used in non-negative contexts? The answer in most every case is “no”. But there is one exception (pun intended): rhetorical questions. This apparent exception confused me even more than the original problem, since it seemed to break with the expected pattern of negation. Then I realized that even though the rhetorical questions are technically positive, they expected a negative answer where εἰ μή was used . In other words, the expected answer to the question is nothing or no one.
"To summarize, here is my claim: Although there are several contrastive or adversative particles, the key to distinguishing ἀλλὰ from εἰ μή is the relation of replacement to the original set of items that is replaced/corrected.
In the case of εἰ μή, the excepted element that replaces what precedes was a potential member of the negated set. Look back at the example from Mark 6:4-5: a conceptual set of data are established either by use of a negated or an interrogative clause. The negation serves to remove all possible candidates from the data set, essentially wiping the slate clean by negation (e.g. no one can do X=X is not able to be done by anyone). The interrogative asks a question whose answer is expected to be negative (e.g. Who can do this? Cf. Mark 2:7) In both cases, this protasis has the effect of predicating a set of items that is completely removed from consideration. This is where the exceptive/restrictive apodosis comes in. One member from the original set that was negated is presented as an exception."
A diagram follows this excerpt in the blog post that explains graphically what I am talking about. See also sections 4.3 and 4.4 in "Discourse Grammar of the Greek NT" for a longer description.
They MEN appear to be synonymous, in reality DE there is a meaningful distinction.
From: b-greek-bounces at lists.ibiblio.org [mailto:b-greek-bounces at lists.ibiblio.org] On Behalf Of Elizabeth Kline
Sent: Wednesday, June 10, 2009 11:14 AM
To: B Greek
Cc: Charles Johnson
Subject: Re: [B-Greek] Galatians 1:6-7
On Jun 10, 2009, at 5:54 AM, Charles Johnson wrote:
> Thanks to Donald, George, and Elizabeth for the interaction. I think I
> understand the flow of thought better. Particularly helpful was
> Elizabeth's tidbit that EI MH follows a negative, a requirement that
> QAUMAZW does not meet.
Small clarification. EI MH is also used in Paul where it does not follow a negative.
2Cor. 2:1 Ἔκρινα γὰρ ἐμαυτῷ τοῦτο τὸ μὴ πάλιν ἐν λύπῃ πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἐλθεῖν. 2 εἰ γὰρ ἐγὼ λυπῶ ὑμᾶς, καὶ τίς ὁ εὐφραίνων με εἰ μὴ ὁ λυπούμενος ἐξ ἐμοῦ; 3 καὶ ἔγραψα τοῦτο αὐτό, ἵνα μὴ ἐλθὼν λύπην σχῶ ἀφ᾿ ὧν ἔδει με χαίρειν, πεποιθὼς ἐπὶ πάντας ὑμᾶς ὅτι ἡ ἐμὴ χαρὰ πάντων ὑμῶν ἐστιν.
2COR. 2:1 EKRINA GAR EMAUTWi TOUTO TO MH PALIN EN LUPHi PROS hUMAS ELQEIN. 2 EI GAR EGW LUPW hUMAS, KAI TIS hO EUFRAINWN ME EI MH hO LUPOUMENOS EX EMOU; 3 KAI EGRAYA TOUTO AUTO, hINA MH ELQWN LUPHN SCW AF᾿ hWN EDEI ME CAIREIN, PEPOIQWS EPI PANTAS hUMAS hOTI hH EMH CARA PANTWN hUMWN ESTIN.
Also, EI MH is occasionally used in Attic as a virtual equivelent of ALLA, see G.Cooper 18.104.22.168.B where he cites the following examples:
897 Μὰ τὼ θεώ,
898 εἰ μὴ Κρίτυλλά γ’ Ἀντιθέου
899 Σὺ δ’ εἶ πανοῦργος.
897 MA TW QEW,
898 EI MH KRITULLA G' ANTIQEOU GARGHTTOQEN.
899 SU D' EI PANOURGOS.
Xeno. Oec. 9:1
Καὶ τί δή; ἡ γυνὴ ἐδόκει σοι, ἔφην
ἐγώ, ὦ Ἰσχόμαχε, 2 πώς τι ὑπακούειν
ὧν σὺ ἐσπούδαζες διδάσκων; Τί δέ,
εἰ μὴ 3 ὑπισχνεῖτό γε ἐπιμελήσεσθαι
καὶ φανερὰ ἦν ἡδομένη ἰσχυρῶς, 4
ὥσπερ ἐξ ἀμηχανίας εὐπορίαν τινὰ
ηὑρηκυῖα, καὶ ἐδεῖτό μου
KAI TI DH; hH GUNH EDOKEI SOI, EFHN EGW, W ISCOMACE, 2 PWS TI hUPAKOUEIN hWN SU ESPOUDAZES DIDASKWN; TI DE, EI MH 3 hUPISCNEITO GE EPIMELHSESQAI KAI FANERA HN hHDOMENH ISCURWS, 4 hWSPER EX AMHCANIAS EUPORIAN TINA hHURHKUIA, KAI EDEITO MOU
I would be interested in hearing opinions of the citation from Aristophanes Thes. 898. I was not totally convinced it illustrated what Cooper was intending it to illustrate. Following up on citations in reference works sometimes leads to questions like this.
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