[B-Greek] DOKIMOS GENOMENOS in JAMES 1:12

Carl W. Conrad cwconrad at artsci.wustl.edu
Sat Jul 28 06:41:06 EDT 2007


On Jul 27, 2007, at 1:32 PM, Elizabeth Kline wrote:

> Thank you Carl and Iver,
>
> JAMES 1:12 MAKARIOS ANHR hOS hUPOMENEI PEIRASMON, hOTI DOKIMOS
> GENOMENOS LHMYETAI TON STEFANON THS ZWHS hON EPHGGEILATO TOIS
> AGAPWSIN AUTON.
>
> On Jul 26, 2007, at 1:48 PM, Carl W. Conrad wrote:
>
>> My view of this is that
>> (a) the subject of LHMYETAI is ANHR hOS hUPOMENEI PEIRASMON;
>
> On Jul 26, 2007, at 11:39 PM, Iver Larsen wrote:
>> From the standpoint of general descriptive linguistics, every verb
>> has a subject, but it may be implicit or only marked by an affix on
>> the verb.
>> A clause does not fill a subject slot except possibly in special
>> circumstances of infinitives and impersonal constructions. The way
>> I would analyze this text, the subordinated clause doesn't fill any
>> syntactical slot in the following clause, since it is not a
>> constituent of that clause, but a subordinate clause in its own
>> right. (Constituents of clauses are phrases.) There is no explicit
>> subject for LHMYETAI except the third person suffix. The implicit
>> subject for both this verb and the participle is ANHR, which is
>> carried over from the previous clause, and this word could have
>> been repeated. However, there is no need to repeat it.
>
> Could we say that ANHR and the implicit subject of LHMYETAI are
> coreferential? Would that reconcile the apparent difference between
> Carl's and Iver's statements? I am a little bit hesitant to accept
> the notion that a clause cannot fill a slot in another clause. It
> appears to contradict some fundamental conceptions about embedded and/
> or recursive structures. It could be that I am misreading Iver's
> intended meaning here.
>
> Carl wrote:
>>>
>>> Another question, does the nominative participle clause fill a
>>> syntactical slot in the following clause? Is it the subject of
>>> LHMYETAI or is the subject of DOKIMOS GENOMENOS coreferential with
>>> the subject of LHMYETAI?
>>
>> I think they're coreferential and that their identity is to be read
>> from ANHR hOS hUPOMENEI PEIRASMON; after all, the hOTI clause
>> surely explains the reason why that ANHR is MAKARIOS.
>
> JAMES 1:12 MAKARIOS ANHR hOS hUPOMENEI PEIRASMON, hOTI DOKIMOS
> GENOMENOS LHMYETAI TON STEFANON THS ZWHS hON EPHGGEILATO TOIS
> AGAPWSIN AUTON.
>
> What impact would it have on our analysis if we insert hO in hOTI hO
> DOKIMOS GENOMENOS LHMYETAI ... ?  Would we say that hO DOKIMOS
> GENOMENOS fills the subject slot for LHMYETAI? This was the question
> lurking in the back of my mind when I submitted my original post.

That would, of course, make it a substantive participle, equivalent  
to a relative clause, "one who has proved he has the right stuff" --  
and it would indeed be the subject of LHMYETAI. But that's not what  
we have in our text.

> Carl said:
>> (b) DOKIMOS GENOMENOS is circumstantial and probably best
>> understood as the protasis of a future-more-vivid condition,
>> equivalent to EAN DOKIMOS GENHTAI ("if he proves that he has 'the
>> right stuff,' ... ).
>
> I agree and for that reason I would have to take exception to Iver's
> comment:
>
> On Jul 26, 2007, at 11:39 PM, Iver Larsen wrote:
>> That it is fronted in my view only suggests that there is a greater
>> emphasis on this condition relative to the result than if it had
>> not been fronted.
>
> It seems to me that the position of hO DOKIMOS GENOMENOS relative to
> LHMYETAI has to do with information flow, a topic that Steve Runge
> brought up in our recent discussion of fronted participles. IMHO the
> position of hO DOKIMOS GENOMENOS relative to LHMYETAI cannot be
> adequately explained on the basis of "greater emphasis". Something
> more than that is going on here.

Again, it really seems to me that discussion of hO DOKIMOS GENOMENOS  
is gratuitous and hypothetical.


Carl W. Conrad
Department of Classics, Washington University (Retired)
1989 Grindstaff Road/Burnsville, NC 28714/(828) 675-4243
cwconrad2 at mac.com
WWW: http://www.ioa.com/~cwconrad/





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