Rolf Furuli furuli at online.no
Wed Nov 8 16:29:48 EST 2006

Dear Webb,

I do not think you are well informed in this case. In all (there are not 
many) the LXX and LXX-like manuscripts we know from B.C.E. and down to 50 
C.E. we find YHWH in old Hebrew or Aramaic characters or as the Greek 
phonetic transcription IAW. There is no clear evidence that YHWH was 
substituted by KURIOS in Greek texts of this time. In Qumran YHWH was not 
pronounced, but the substitute the people used was not "ADONAI" but "EL". 
Both "ADONAI" and YHWH are used in the Hebrew Bible with reference to the 
creator, but "ADONAI" is not used as a *substitute* for YHWH. I am not aware 
of any clear evidence from before 50 C.E. that "ADONAI" was used in Hebrew 
texts as a substitute for YHWH. In the rabbinic literature, some passages 
say that YHWH was no longer used at an early date; other passages show that 
it continued to be used down to the second century C.E. So, if we look at 
the evidence, we cannot even exclude the possibility that YHWH was used by 
the common people in everyday speech in the days of Jesus. We should 
remember that the Masoretes who substituted YHWH with "ADONAI" lived in the 
second half of the first millennium C.E. We should not extrapolate their 
views back into the last centuries B.C.E. or the first century C.E. But we 
have to rely on the evidence from this time.

Best regards,

Rolf Furuli
University of Oslo

----- Original Message ----- 
From: "Webb" <webb at selftest.net>
To: <b-greek at lists.ibiblio.org>
Sent: Wednesday, November 08, 2006 7:43 PM
Subject: Re: [B-Greek] KURIOS hO QEOS hO PANTOKRATWR (Rev. 4:8)

> Dear Doug,
> You've got it backwards. When the LXX translators read YHWH, they 
> translated
> it as KURIOS, which corresponds to ADONAI (Hebrew for "Lord"), the QERE
> ('what is read'), which was always read aloud when YHWH stood in the 
> Hebrew
> text. My understanding is that by the time of the LXX, pronunciation of 
> had already become strictly taboo in orthodox Judaism. It would thus be a
> move peculiar in the extreme to find KURIOS in the text and to render it 
> as
> Webb Mealy

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