[B-Greek] TADE in Revelation

Iver Larsen iver at larsen.dk
Fri Mar 17 01:49:06 EST 2006

> Granted that TADE appears only 8x in Rev and other forms of hODE only  2x in the GNT, it is not true that hODE is 
> obsolete in Hellenistic  Greek. TADE as pointed forward to cited material or a list and  functioning more or less like 
> a colon in modern punctuation is  standard Greek from pretty far back and is found in Philo and  Josephus and the 
> early church fathers. I don't doubt that TADE LEGEI  in the LXX commonly conveys Hebrew COH AMAR IHWH, but the common 
> usage reflects standard traditional Greek usage of TADE.
> Carl W. Conrad

I made my other comment before receiving this one, but maybe I should comment on this, too.

Since I have no resources to check usage outside of the LXX and the GNT, I was relying on statements like the following:

BDF (§289) says "hODE is almost never used in the NT outside the formula TADE LEGEI (introductory as in classical)...and 
because it belongs to the literary and no longer to the living idiom, it is not always used correctly at that." BDF 
further says that the usage in Luke 10:39 appears to be dependent on the LXX which renders Hebrew hinneh by THiDE  in 
Genesis. (My comment: The Hebrew discourse particle hinneh is rendered in many different ways. Genesis also renders 
vehinneh as KAI EUQUS in Genesis, which is interesting for Marcan studies, but that is a different topic.)

BAGD under the entry for hODE cites Mayser as stating that it is "rare in both" (the inscriptions and the papyri, I 

When I looked at the usage in the LXX again, I noticed that 78% of all occurrences of hODE were in the formula TADE 
LEGEI (356 out of 454). In the NT 8 out of 10 is also in the form TADE LEGEI which is the same percentage, although the 
overall usage is much less frequent for all forms of hODE in the NT compared to the LXX.
So, it appears to me that
1) hODE has always been used mainly in this particular formula, like the modern colon as Carl puts it.
2) both hODE in general and TADE LEGEI  in particular are significantly less frequent in Hellenistic Greek compared to 
LXX Greek (I cannot check Classical Greek)

Iver Larsen 

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