Iver Larsen iver at larsen.dk
Fri Jun 2 04:22:08 EDT 2006

> While perusing Volume 2 of j. p. J. P. Louw and E.A. Nida, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament Based on 
> Semantic Domains ([New York: United Bible Societies, 1989], p. 128), I discovered the five ranges of meaning for 
> KAQWS, namely:
>  a. "to the degree that"/"just as" . . . 78.53
>  b. "inasmuch as"/"because" . . . 89.34
>  c. "just as"/"in comparison to" . . . 64.14
>  d. "when"/"at the time of" . . . 67.33
>  e. "how"/"in what manner" . . . 89.86

I would suggest that you also check a dictionary like Bauer to see how the syntax indicates which sense is being used. 
BAGD says:
5. After verbs of saying it introduces indirect discourse

So, N&L sense e does not apply to the syntax of John 5:23.

4. The temporal mng. of k. is disputed, but seems well established

So, this is a rare sense. One reference is Acts 7:17 cited by both N&L and BAGD. This appears to be the only instance in 
the GNT, and I think it could well be disputed and Acts 7:17 could be classified as under sense b. I would rephrase the 
gloss for b as "inasmuch as, since, based on the fact that". Acts 7:17 could then be translated "Since the time for the 
fulfillment of God's promise to Abraham was drawing near, the people mulitplied in Egypt." Many English versions 
translate by "As the time drew near". It is more than just temporal. GNB is alone in translating it by "when" and that 
word does not properly cover the sense intended.

For sense b, BAGD has:

3. in a causal sense, esp. as a conjunction beginning a sentence (Bl-D. §453, 2; Rob. 968; 1382) since, in so far as

Sense a and c are very close, and they reflect the common and basic sense of comparison indicated by KAQWS.

>  I could not help but think of the possibilities of lexical meanings for the use of the word in John 5:23, namely
>  a. " . . . that all may honor the Son to the degree that/just as they honor the Father"
>  b. " . . . that all may honor the Son inasmuch as/because they honor the Father"
>  c. " . . . that all may honor the Son just as/incomparison to they honor the Father"
>  d. " . . . that all may honor the Son when they honor the Father"
>  e. " . . . that all may honor the Son how/in what manner they honor the Father"

e. is not possible because of context. d. is unlikely as it is very rare, if at all it exists in the NT, and it would 
probably have to begin its sentence. Sense b also seems to be used when the word begins a sentence, but I haven't 
checked all the instances. This leaves sense a and c which are pretty much the same. However, BAGD gives a better idea 
of the distinction between the two:

2. as, to the degree that (Num 26:54) ...as far as they were able to understand Mk 4:33 ... each according to his 
ability Ac 11:29

1. indicating comparison: just as

>From this it seems fairly clear that the sense intended in John 5:23 is sense 1 in BAGD or c in L&N. This is also the 
basic sense that covers the vast majority of the 182 KAQWS's in the GNT, and BAGD specifically lists John 5:23 under 
this sense.

Iver Larsen

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