[B-Greek] Usage of PAIS in Luke 7:7,Matt 8:5-13

Mark Fairpo 7968 at breathemail.net
Tue Jun 3 11:42:03 EDT 2003


Dear Carl,

Thank you for taking the time to respond to all five of my questions.

>Do not kid yourself! We are ALL of us investigators from another place and time 

Now we know why you hide away in the Blue Ridge mountains of N. Carolina. The Men-in-Black have the B-Greek member list.

>It seems to me that indications are unmistakable in Mt 8:5-13: it is hO
>PAIS and the masculine pronoun AUTON is used of this servant. In Lk 7:1-10
>the servant is called a DOULOS and there too is referred to with a
>masculine relative pronoun hOS.

Searching Strong's, I assume you kindly illustrated Matthew's singular neuter "relative pronoun" hO to compare with Luke's (singular) masculine hOS.

>>Summarising my findings so far: Some scholars consider PAIS a diminutive
>>form itself. PAIS diminutive sense may not always be strong or even
>>perceptible. For a slave, its diminutive sense is mostly social rank
>>rather than age: 'possibly serving as a personal servant and thus with the
>>implication of kindly regard' (Louw & Nida 87.77). The degree of affection
>>is ... out of pity for their status as for a humble 2-year-old. PAIDION
>>and PAIDARION are double-diminutives and used metaphorically for the sense
>>of tender affection. In grammar, diminutive means denoting (i) smallness
>>or (ii) the state or quality of being familiarly known, loveable, pitiable
>>or contemptible.
>
>I would avoid the term "diminutive" with regard to the usage of PAIS for
>"servant"--primarily because "diminutive" normally bears the grammatical
>sense  indicated in your last sentence in the paragraph above. You're
>referring rather to a usage of PAIS reflecting the word-user's attitude of
>affection or condescension toward the person referred to by the word--the
>same attitude that is reflected in use of the second-person singular rather
>than the more formal second-person pronoun of ordinary speech. In the case
>of PAIS, however, I think the usage may not necessarily be either
>affectionate nor contemptuous but simply conventional, so much so that PAIS
>commonly enough in the LXX is used regularly to convey the Hebrew Ebhedh,
>especially in the "Suffering Servant" poems of Deutero-Isaiah, and this OT
>LXX usage is especially common in Acts with reference to David and Jesus as
>God's "servants."

I was unclear that I was not applying "diminutive" to explain its secondary use for servant. Or more accurately, its metaphorical use for a person who's been "trained". Rather, having established the usage, there's a further "diminutive sense [that] may not always be strong or even perceptible" which for a slave/servant "is mostly social rank rather than age" i.e. "out of pity for their status as for a humble 2-year-old". This is sensed in the "Suffering Servant" poems. (Thanks Carl, I'd wondered why not DOULOS in Acts.)

Both Louw & Nida and www.snellvillecoc.org/online_resources/truth_applications/articles/service.html suggest PAIS is often with a sense of affection (kindly regard). Friberg's Lexicon has 'servant, slave "boy" (Luke 7:7, cf. DOULOS v2)', but as (correctly) stated elsewhere, age is superfluous when used metaphorically.

This diminutive form & sense pinned these broken ideas and the loose "often with". I habitually see every Lexicon as contributory, whereas the silence of one may well contradict the additions in another. As you state "the usage may not necessarily be either affectionate ... but simply conventional". There might be an alternate option; that in lieu of 'serving as a personal servant [thus has] the implication of kindly regard'. Having a typically diminutive "kindly regard" but not itself a diminutive form. From a previous contribution (inc. after this message to further clarify):

>Even adults who are poor and have no political clout are sometimes referred
>to as MICROi (little ones) in the sense of great men and lesser men in society.
>So you have to remember that diminutives cut in several directions. And not all
>forms with -ION are diminutives either, some are only a new formations on older
>masculine forms, others have lost the diminutive sense they had in classical times.

How does my clarification affect my original proposal of PAIS as a diminutive form itself?

>affection or condescension toward the person referred to by the word--the
>same attitude that is reflected in use of the second-person singular rather
>than the more formal second-person pronoun of ordinary speech.

As you mention this... may I ask... is Matt 8:5-13 or Luke 7:1-10 second-person singular or pronoun? What are its implications?

Shalom,

Mark Fairpo
GB


(Response to my last thread "Connotations of PAIS in Luke 7:7,Matt 8:5-13":)

PAIS, (gen. PAIDOS) is one of those words which are used metaphorically a lot! So much so that it is hard to see the point in using it. There is one thing which the uses have in common, and that is that the person has been "trained" (either for service, for life as a citizen, or whatever the context implies). Although the age range is about 8-12 when used literally as a "child", age is superfluous when it is used metaphorically. As a diminutive form, it does imply some degree of affection--even for a slave.

(Asked if PAIDION is the diminutive form of PAIS:)

PAIS (gen. PAIDOS) is a diminutive form itself (the -ID suffix on the root PAW, which means "hit" in the sense of discipline in training), yet the diminutive sense may not be strong or even perceptible in some cases. PAIDION and PAIDARION are double-diminutives, which were originally intended for younger children (around 2-7) but also used metaphorically--especially in the sense of tender affection.

Yes, PAIS was used for a slave. The diminutive sense would apply mostly to social ranking rather than age. Tender affection could exist to some degree, but this is a case where you would feel for them out of pity for their status (as you would feel for someone else's 2-year-old over his humbled status). The context is important in determining what is meant.

There is seldom an exchange for PAIS for its double diminutives among textual variants.

Even adults who are poor and have no political clout are sometimes referred to as MICROi (little ones) in the sense of great men and lesser men in society. So you have to remember that diminutives cut in several directions. And not all forms with -ION are diminutives either, some are only a new formations on older masculine forms, others have lost the diminutive sense they had in classical times.

-DH



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