[B-Greek] MONON as a special particle

Harry W. Jones hwjones2 at earthlink.net
Fri Jan 31 17:11:33 EST 2003


James 2:24.

I find the idea that MONON is modifying  DIKAIOUTAI in the first clause
very puzzling. If it is modifying  DIKAIOUTAI then why isn't it in the
first clause? I know that Friberg has tagged MONON here as an adjective
being used as an adverb but I find that very puzzling as well.

Any help in this would be appreciated.

Best Regards,
Harry Jones

> [Original Message]
> From: Iver Larsen <iver_larsen at sil.org>
> To: <b-greek at lists.ibiblio.org>; <moon at mail.sogang.ac.kr>
> Date: 1/31/03 7:43:07 AM
> Subject: RE: [B-Greek] MONON as a special particle
> [Moon:]> > > Recently I studied James 2:24, and was puzzled over MONON.
> > > I read that Blass, Debrunner, and Funk, A Greek Grammar of the
> > New Testament,
> > > p. 125,224, talk about an occasional "confusing" of the adverb MOMON
> > > with the adjective MONO" in the NT.
> > > Mark 6:8, Acts 11:19, 2 Tim 4:8, Heb 12:26, Jas 1:22, Mt 5:47,
> > > Mt 10:42, Gal 3:2, Rom 3:29 can be cited as examples when the
> > > adverb is used instead of the adjective, yet having the force
> > > of the adjective. This conclusion seesm to be based on the fact that
> > > in these examples MONON modifiers nouns.
> I have looked at p. 125 and 224 in BDF, but cannot find what you are
> referring to. Can you be more precise?
> Of the references mentioned only Gal 3:2 has MONON as an adjective, all
> others are adverbs. It is, of course, the neuter form of the adjective
> is used as an adverb.
> <snip>
> > > The conclusion: MONON, like ONLY in English, is used to focus on a
> > > constituent which plays a role in a surrounding predicate. If this
> > > hypothesis is right, then OUK EK PISTEWS MONON should be
> > > diagrammed as:
> > > >
> > > [ OUK [ [EK PISTEWS] MONON ] ]
> > >
> > > [EK PISTEWS] is a constituent playing a role in the surrounding
> > > predication. Hence MONON can modify it.
> > > >
> > > Then a question is raised.
> > > Why not OUK MONON EK PISTEWS? Then there would have been
> > > no confusion.
> I would agree that it is probably better to take MONON as a kind of
> which functions in a way similar to OU(K). The scope of its operation may
> a noun or noun phrase in which is it like an adjective, or the scope may
> whole predicate, in which case it is like an adverb.
> In Jas 2:24 the implied verb is DIKAIOUTAI, carried over from the previous
> clause. A person is not only justified by showing/having faith. That is,
> action of showing/having faith is not enough. One also needs the action of
> showing/having works.
> Actually, there is no significant difference in meaning in this sentence
> whether one takes MONON to modify the noun phrase or the whole predicate,
> but grammatically it seems clear that it modifies the predicate.
> All the examples of MONON as an adjective I could find in the GNT were
> actually accusative masculine or neuter, no nominative neuter.
> Concerning the word order, MONON occasionally occurs at the end when it
> modifies the whole clause, especially when the other elements in the
> are relatively more prominent as in Jas 2:24. Notice that the only words
> the clause are KAI OUK EK PISTEWS MONON. The fronted EK PISTEWS
> nicely and contrastively to the fronted EX ERGWN in the previous clause.
> Iver Larsen
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