Dr. Dale M. Wheeler dalemw at
Fri Jan 24 10:52:52 EST 2003

At 12:35 AM 1/23/2003 -0500, Richard Ghilardi wrote:
>Dear B-Greekers,
>Dr. Wheeler wrote:
><< There are no occurrences of ARXW (the LXX just uses the base form, not
>the "deponent" form) in the Imperfect in the LXX, and there are 35
>occurrences of ERXOMAI in the Imperfect in the LXX. >>
>According to Hatch Redpath there does appear to be one occurance of
>imperfect of ARCOMAI in the LXX:
>Jos 17:12
>While Alexandrinus has HRXATO Rahlfs reads the imperfect, HRCETO and
>Brenton translates this word as "began" though this can hardly be right.
>After all, the Canaanites were there long before the sons of Manasseh
>arrived on the scene!


Yes, it should be ARXW in Josh 17:12; I went back to Bernard and my 
discussion of this and found that we had decided that this one is ARXW, its 
just that this one was on my list of individual things to hand correct for 
the next release, namely this one will be listed as both with ERXOMAI as 
the alternate (remember, I said there were still things to do)'s 
PART of our discussion, FYI:

This is an interesting case. Based on morphology alone, the root can either 
be ARXW or ERXOMAI. As noted, if this is the former, it is the only time it 
appears in the impf. However, I believe it is from ARXW. Consider the 

1. Some 11x ARXW translates Hebrew Y)L (a/c to HR), but the Hebrew is never 
translated by ERXOMAI.

2. The Vulgate translates as: sed coepit Chananeus habitare in terra ista 
(Douay-Rheims: but the Chanaanite began to dwell in his land)

3. BM list a majority variant (to HRXETO): HRCATO which is the aorist of 
ARXW. However, for the Ethiopic, they give the Latin translation: venerunt, 
which means 'came', so we must not be the only ones who have had a problem 
with this verse!

4. Tg Jonathan and the Peshitta have a different text at this verse, and so 
have no direct equivalent.

5. Field has no notes or variants at this point (and nor does BHS, since 
the Hebrew is not in question, and the Gk need not signal a different text.

Y)L_2 can be *stretched* to mean *continue to* (cf., BDB), but quite 
naturally means "were determined" (NIV) or possibly "to begin" (cf., KBS 
3), thus the LXX translation of it by ARXW 11x.  As to the sequence of 
events in the text...the Hebrew makes sense, and the LXX translator may 
have just gone with the normal translation of Y)L as ARXW, whether it "made 
sense" or not, from the LXX perspective, or the towns were originally taken 
by the other tribes whose territory evidently overlapped Manasseh, but 
Manasseh could not hold the towns and so they were recaptured by the 

Dale M. Wheeler, Ph.D.
Research Prof., Biblical Languages          Multnomah Bible College
8435 NE Glisan St.                                  Portland, OR 97220
V: 503-2516416                                 E: dalemw at
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