Dr. Dale M. Wheeler dalemw at
Wed Jan 22 11:55:38 EST 2003

At 06:39 AM 1/22/2003 -0500, Carl W. Conrad wrote:
>At 10:54 AM +0000 1/22/03, D Jongkind wrote:
> >John 19:3
> >
> >NRSV 'they kept coming up to him'
> >
> >HRCONTO taken as the imperfect of ERCOMAI. But is it possible to see it as
> >the imperfect of ARCOMAI (ARCW)?
>Not in John 19:3.
> >Possible problems I see is that the imperfect does not seem to fit the
> >meaning of ARCOMAI (to start), and the actual translation in this context is
> >not clear (though I would go for something like 'to start' > 'to have a go
> >at'; though rather unattested).
> >My Gramcord parsing gives 9 occurances of the imperfect of ARCOMAI in the
> >LXX, but it seems to me that all 9 do come from ERCOMAI. Do we have any
> >convincing arguments in koine-Greek of the imperfect of ARCOMAI?
>I assume that Gramcord has the same database as Accordance; in Accordance I
>found 5 instances of ERCOMAI in the imperfect listed, but 25 hits on
>ARCOMAI; several of those were quite clearly instances of ERCOMAI. I guess
>Dale Wheeler ought to be notified of this.


Just before SBL I released a new version of the CCAT/CATSS/UPenn MorphLXX, 
the results of several years of work by Bernard Taylor and myself to 
conform the MorphLXX to his Analytical Lexicon to the LXX as well as expand 
the tagging scheme.  These changes to the official version of the MorphLXX 
number in the tens of thousands (and there is still more to do).

I'm pretty sure that Roy Brown has incorporated it into the latest version 
of Accordance; I know for sure that its in the newest version of Gramcord 
for Windows/BCS.  The results you got are based on the old version of the 
CCAT need to upgrade.

There are no occurrences of ARXW (the LXX just uses the base form, not the 
"deponent" form) in the Imperfect in the LXX, and there are 35 occurrences 
of ERXOMAI in the Imperfect in the LXX.

As to HRXONTO in John 19:3...the Imperfect can sometimes be ingressive 
("they began coming to him..."), but normally its clear from the context 
that the action has not been done before and its therefore incipient, and 
that the contextual stress is not on its reoccurrence (which is 
nevertheless implied by the imperfect).  However, in this case, its seem 
clear to me, as well as the NRSV and NIV (but not NASB, NKJV), that this 
imperfect is not stressing the beginning of the action, but its repeated 
nature, almost as if each soldier in the cohort came up to him one by one, 
"Hail'ed" him and then struck him.

Dale M. Wheeler, Ph.D.
Research Prof., Biblical Languages          Multnomah Bible College
8435 NE Glisan St.                                  Portland, OR 97220
V: 503-2516416                                 E: dalemw at

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