Verbal Aspect terms LONG?

Mark Wilson emory2oo2 at
Fri May 24 23:36:39 EDT 2002


Let me just give examples of each verb type,
and then I'll show how Aspect might interact with each.

FOUR Kinds of Verbs:

1. Activities: running, swimming, DIDASKW

2. Accomplishments: drawing a circle, painting a picture, DIERCOMAI

3. Achievements: win a race, reach the top, QNHiSKW

4. States: knowing, wanting, PISTEUWN

These verbs have their own inherent Lexical Aspects, but when
they are COMBINED with Grammatical Aspect, you will then
have to take into consideration BOTH.

Lexical Aspect PLUS Grammatical Aspect

1. Activities:

A. With imperfective form: action IN PROGRESS without reaching
the end

B. With perfective form: the ENTIRE period of the action is in view

2. Accomplishments:

A. With imperfective form: action IN PROGRESS, before and after the
point it is viewed, but NOT reaching its end-point

B. With perfective form: process occurs, and runs all the way to
the end-point

3. Achievements:

Note first that Achievement verbs have two "phases." The first
is the "going toward X," the other is "arriving at X."

(Example: first phase can be "searching for X," the last phase is
"finding X.")

A. With imperfective form: the going toward X is in view

B. With perfective form: the arriving at X is in view

4. States:

Remember, Stative verbs have durativity, but not "progressiveness"

A. With imperfective form: continuing existence, without reference
to any progress

B. With perfective form: ENTRANCE INTO the state

Many linguists add to the TWO Aspects I have listed (imperfective
and perfective) yet another Aspect. That other Aspect is basically
known as "State." Within this model, you basically have three
Grammatical Aspects: Present (imperfective), Aorist (perfective),
and Perfect (stative).

Group them as follows:

1. Present and Imperfective FORMS (imperfective)
2. Aorist and PluPerfect FORMS (perfective) {Future form?]
3. Perfect FORM (stative)

What Grammatical Aspect the Future tense/form encodes
is debated. Wallace would place it with the Aorist, whereas
Fanning, Olsen, and Porter define it as "aspectually neutral."
It does seem to behave like an Aorist to me, so I have tentatively
placed it in the perfective aspect, since I DO believe that verbs
in the Future tense can FUNCTION as iterative, gnomic, etc.

I have not listed the stative aspect in my earlier posts, but
do find it a better, more complete model. I would accept the
three aspect model. (Since I have not mentioned that until
this post, I thought I better omit it in the above examples.)

So, basically, you would add to the above FOUR verb kinds yet
a third aspect (stative). And in most of the above examples,
the emphasis with stative verbs is the:

"stress on the continuing consequence of the action."

Most of what I have written above is based on my understanding
of Fanning (Verbal Aspect), with some from Wallace. My earlier
posts were basically my understanding of Olsen, whom I enjoy the
most of the above scholars.

Hope this helps.

Mark Wilson

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