EXERA(S)MA 2Peter 2:22

Carl W. Conrad cwconrad at artsci.wustl.edu
Wed Jan 2 19:12:40 EST 2002

At 8:15 PM +0100 1/2/02, Thomas J. Kraus wrote:
>Dear colleagues,
>there is a minor textcritical issue related to 2Peter 2:22 where most and
>the best of the witnesses read
>However, there is quite a number of minuscules together with Codex Bezae who
>[A third alternative is TON IDION EMETON in some minuscules and presented by
>some fathers, which is no problem to be explained].
>Well, the form EXERASMA has made me ponder for a while: where does it
>originate from? All my tools did not have a satisfying answer. Definitely,
>EXERAMA derived from EX+ERAW, is very rare (Disc. de venen. 19).
>Furthermore, there is EXERASIS, -EWS (vomiting; Eust. 1856.5) which might
>help to find out more about EXERASMA. But no matter how I try I cannot bring
>EXERASMA in a clear etymological or morpholical line to explain its
>Of course, there is the same root to count on. Maybe, the scribes made a
>mistake (I doubt that because of the features of the several witnesses) or
>they mixed up paradigmata of word formation from EX+ERAW to EXERASMA then.
>But how?
>I welcome any comment on that. Up to now I have not found any other usage of
>EXERASMA in literal texts, inscriptions, or documentary papyri.

In fact EXERASMA is just a variant of EXERAMA; Smyth has a good account of
this phenomenon--the addition of a Sigma to a vocalic verb stem before a
suffix in Mu (watch out for word-wrap if clicking on the URL):


§836. Insertion of sigma.--Between root (or stem) and suffix s is often
found, and in some cases it has become attached to the suffix. This
parasitic letter spread from the perfect middle, where it is properly in
place only in stems in t, d, th, or s; as in schi-s-mo-s cleaving with s
from e-schi-s-mai by analogy to e-schis-tai for e-schid-tai (schizô
cleave). In -s-tês the transference was made easier by words like schis-tos
cloven for schid-tos. This s appears before many suffixes, and usually
where the perfect middle has acquired it (489).

ma: spa-s-ma spasm (spaô rend, espasmai), keleu-s-ma command (keleu-ô
command, kekeleusmai), mia-s-ma stain (miainô stain, memiasmai).--mo:
spa-s-mos spa-s-ma, keleu-s-mos command.--mê: du-s-mê setting (du_ô
set).--tês: keleus-tês signal-man, orchê-s-tês dancer (orch-e-omai dance),
duna-s-tês lord (duna-mai am able). Also in dra-s-têrios efficacious (dra-ô
do), orchê-s-tra_ dancing-place, plê-s-monê fulness. -s-m has displaced dm,
-th-m (832) in osmê odour (earlier odmê), rhu-s-mos (and rhu-th-mos) rhythm.

Carl W. Conrad
Department of Classics/Washington University (Emeritus)
Home: 7222 Colgate Ave./St. Louis, MO 63130/(314) 726-5649
cwconrad at artsci.wustl.edu
WWW: http://www.artsci.wustl.edu/~cwconrad/

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