Wayne Leman wayne_leman at sil.org
Sun Sep 23 00:11:45 EDT 2001

Charles, you have made an important observation about PANTWN ANQRWPWN being
in the near context of PANTAS ANQRWPOUS of 1 Tim. 2:4. My own sense is that
if the author of the book had intended PANTAS to directly modify the list of
authority figures in v. 2, he would have left out ANQRWPWN at the end of v.
1. I don't know if we can say with certainty what the relationship is
between PANTWN ANQRWPWN of v. 1 and the prepositional phrased headed by
hUPER at the beginning of v. 2, but I do think that we need to take
seriously the presence of ANQRWPWN before hUPER. With hUPER, I would be not
so eager to consider v. 2 to be in apposition to PANTWN ANQRWPWN of v. 1.
Instead, I would prefer to view PANTWN ANQRWPWN as meaning generic
"everyone", and then the hUPER listing to be a more specific subset of
"everyone." Hence, I would prefer "pray for ... everyone, including kings
and all other people in authority." It might not have been expected to pray
for the authority figures since those in power at that time were not always
benevolent, especially with whom those to whom Timothy was ministering, so
the author wanted to be sure that people included the authority figures in
their prayers. I hope I haven't crossed a boundary here into speculation or
theologizing. I've tried to stick as closely as possible to the meaning of
the lexical and syntactic forms here.

Wayne Leman
Bible translation website: http://www.geocities.com/bible_translation

> What about PANTWN ANQRWPWN in 1 Tim 2:1-2. It may be referring to all
> distinction rather than all without exception, since he mentions "for
> and all who are in authority" hUPER BASILEWN KAI PANTWN TWN EN hUPEROCHi
> ONTWN. Is Paul actually urging people to pray for every person without
> exception, or is he instruction us to pray for all kinds of people, i.e.,
> kings, regional governors, etc. This verse may influence the meaning of
> PANTAS in v. 4.
> Charles E. Powell, Ph.D.

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