Gal. 4:11

Carl W. Conrad cwconrad at
Thu Sep 13 09:58:10 EDT 2001

At 8:46 AM -0500 9/13/01, Ed Garcia wrote:
>Some friends and I are reading the book of Galatians. But we are puzzled as
>to the function of UMAS in 4:11. It is an accusative but we are not sure how
>to translate it. What use of the accusative is this? Any guidance that
>anyone can offer would be most appreciated. Thank you.


I don't think that initial hUMAS should be treated as a direct object of
FOBOUMAI but rather as anticipatory of EIS hUMAS, particularly as the
clause MH PWS ... KEKOPIAKA is a typical clause of anxiety, except that
it's in the indicative rather than expressing an anxiety about the future.
My inclination would be to see a sort of anacoluthon here--a break after
the hUMAS and then a resumption in the MH PWS clause. I think I would
either omit the hUMAS in translation or else try to reproduce the force of
the anacoluthon: "I'm afraid that you--that I've labored in vain upon you."

Carl W. Conrad
Department of Classics, Washington University (Emeritus)
Most months: 1647 Grindstaff Road/Burnsville, NC 28714/(828) 675-4243
cwconrad at OR cwconrad at

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