Iver Larsen iver_larsen at
Tue Oct 9 16:19:50 EDT 2001

George asked:
> Are you really arguing against its use in Greek as an emphatic?  Or just
in these set-subset
> constructions.
>   It would seem that the very mention of Peter and Zeus in the above
> examples, being utterly particular, would give them some
> prominence in the construction.  When I was taught Attic Greek some 350
years ago, KAI was
> given a fairly broad range of meanings, among them being 'even' and
> 'especially'.  I mean, why specifically name a particular after having
> referenced the group, if not for emphasis?

Let me just respond to this bit. Yes, KAI has several uses.
I accept the adverbial use of KAI which intensifies the following word,
often translated as "even".
Just one example:
"Lord, when it comes to you, I am ready to go even to jail and to death with
The KAI ... KAI probably does not mean "both ... and", since Luke uses TE
KAI for that. It is more likely that the first KAI is adverbial and the
second coordinating two nouns.

In the instance quoted I argued against "especially" for the coordinating
KAI in preference to "including".
I looked up in the GNT with interlinear gloss just to check which words were
glossed as "especially". The common one was MALISTA.
There was one KAI glossed "especially" in 2 Cor 12:7, but here the gloss is
questionable. An ordinary additive "and" seems as likely, but it is a
difficult passage.
The only other one was in 3 John 5, but here we have KAI TOUTO "and this" =
"especially" where it is the TOUTO that gives the emphasis. It could as well
have been glossed "even". RSV says "especially to strangers", NIV and many
others says "even though they are strangers".

I won't comment on the gods and Zeus since I don't have the context, but for
Mark 16:7 I would agree that Peter is singled out. But that is not the same
as emphasis or prominence, the way I understand it. Since Peter had betrayed
Jesus in a way that none of the others had - apart from Judas, one might
expect someone would have written him off as an apostle. The message here is
that he is still included.
If I say "tell the apostles, including Peter" in English I don't put any
particular phonological stress on Peter. If anything, there may well be some
stress on "including".

Iver Larsen

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