Gal 4:18 EN KALWi

Carl W. Conrad cwconrad at artsci.wustl.edu
Tue Oct 9 07:08:12 EDT 2001


At 5:09 AM -0400 10/9/01, Harry W. Jones wrote:
>Dear Diana,
>
>I could find no place in the NT Greek where either KALOS or AGAQOS are
>used as a substantive for a person. They seem to always be used as a
>quality or characteristic.

You might want to consider the following:

Mt 19:17 hEIS ESTIN hO AGAQOS
Rom 5:7 hUPER TOU AGAQOU TACA TIS KAI TOLMAi APOQANEIN
1 Pet 2:18 hOI OIKETAI hUPOTASSOMENOI EN PANTI FOBWi TOIS DESPOTAIS, OU
MONON TOIS AGAQOIS KAI EPIEIKESIN ALLA KAI TOIS SKOLIOIS

Moreover there are several instances of the antithetical PONHROS used as a
substantive, among them Mt 13:19, 34, 39; Lk 6:45; 1 Cor 5:13. Furthermore
there is some question regarding whether a couple instances of substantive
PONHROS traditionally thought neuter ought not to be considered masculine:

Mt 6:13 hRUSAI hHMAS APO TOU PONHROU.
2 Tj 3"3 PISTOS DE ESTIN hO KURIOS, hOS STHRIXEI hUMAS KAI FULAXEI APO TOU
PONHROU

But in reality a host of instances of these adjectives used as neuter
substantives wouldn't prove that KALWi in Gal 4:18 can NOT be masculine.

 >> While I'm interrupting with questions, there was one awhile back I couldn't
>> answer for myself.  There is no article in the phrase "EN KALWi" here, so it
>> could be masculine, as well as neuter.  The context in Galatians would
>> certainly support a reference to human agency, rather than neuter
>> instrumentality.  And BDF allows EN + (dative/instrumental) to be used for
>> personal agency.   Why, then, is this phrase translated (by all versions
>> I've checked) as "in a good cause," rather than "by a good person"?  Is
>> there a reason in Greek grammar; or is it merely that translators feel Paul
>> would not refer to himself as "good" or imply the opposite of other
>> Christians, personally, by contrast, even though he has been forcefully
>> saying these other Christians' suborning of doctrinal felonies among the
>> Galatians was quite bad?    (Rats!  Parse that sentence!)
>>
>> [Dictionaries I checked may have leaned toward the (non-personal)
>> instrumental as more usual for such phrases, but not totally clear.  Both
>> allowed.]
>>
>> Diana N. Shaw
>> dinosaur2 at prodigy.net
>> http://pages.prodigy.net/dinosaur2
>> http://pages.prodigy.net/dinosaur2/private/itiswrit.htm
>
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-- 

Carl W. Conrad
Department of Classics, Washington University (Emeritus)
Most months: 1647 Grindstaff Road/Burnsville, NC 28714/(828) 675-4243
cwconrad at artsci.wustl.edu OR cwconrad at ioa.com
WWW: http://www.artsci.wustl.edu/~cwconrad/



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