Carl W. Conrad cwconrad at
Mon Oct 8 17:22:02 EDT 2001

At 12:10 PM -0700 10/8/01, Alan B. Thomas wrote:
>Concerning this from Iver...
>> And I would still be interested in any
>> example where the second
>> item appears to be more prominent than the first. In
>> that case, I'll revise
>> my hypothesis.

I think the hypothesis is plausible but more speculative than demonstrable.
In addition to what Alan offers, I think the idiomatic construction I'm
citing depends upon a degree of prominence for the second item following
the TE KAI.

While I know of no instances of this in the GNT, there is a standard,
frequent construction in classical Attic of a form of ALLOS followed by TE
KAI and an item in the same case as the form of ALLOS, the semantic force
of the construction being "others and especially X"; one sees this also
with the adverb ALLWS TE KAI and another adverb where the following adverb
is emphatic and the sense is "otherwise and especially X-ly":


6. with Art., ho allos, the rest, all besides; in pl., hoi alloi (Ion.
contr. hôlloi) all the others, the rest, freq. from Hom. downwards (alloi
in same signf., Il.2.1); ta alla, contr. talla, all else, talla plên ho
chrusos Scol. 1 (Pytherm.); in Att. freq. as Adv., for the rest, esp. in
amendments to decrees, ta men alla kathaper ho deina ktl. IG1.27a70, etc.:
of Time, = ton allon chronon, X.HG3.2.2; ho a. chronos, = ho loipos
chronos, of the future, Lys. 14.4 (but also of the past, D.20.16); têi
allêi hêmerai, tôi allôi etei, next day, next year, X.HG1.1.13, 1.2.1;
hoite alloi kai . . all others and especially . . , gunaikas allas te
pollas kai dêkai basileos thugatera Hdt.1.1 , etc.; alla te dê eipe, kai .
. Pl.Tht.142c; (v. allôs 1 ):--to allo is much less freq. than ta alla.


3. freq. in phrase allôs te kai . . both otherwise and . . , i.e.
especially, above all, A.Eu.473, Th.1.70, etc.; strengthd., a. te pantôs
kai . . A.Pr. 636, Eu.726; freq. followed by ên, ei, epeidê, especially if
. . , Hp.VC 21, Th.1.81, 2.3; by part., Id.4.104, 7.80:--without kai, a. te
ean X.Mem.1.2.59 ; allôs te epeidê Isoc.2.51 , Pl.Men.85e, etc.

>By way of English examples, we have conventional
>ways of expressing multiple nominals.
>1. I now pronounce you HUSBAND/MAN and WIFE
>2. Would you like a PEANUT BUTTER and JELLY sandwich
>3. May I introduce MR. and MRS. Smith
>4. Colors of the Am. flag are RED, WHITE, and BLUE
>5. The directions are NORTH...(SOUTH or EAST...)
>I think that apart from conventional ways of
>expressing multiple nominals, emphasis or prominence
>is not in view.
>It would be rather unusual for me to introduce
>a couple as MRS. and MR. Smith (unless I were
>at a NOW convention, perhaps).
>For me to say that the colors of the Am. flag
>are WHITE, BLUE, and RED would be equally awkward.
>To teach children the directions as WEST, NORTH ...
>seems a bit awkward. (I think we tend to put
>NORTH first.)
>Perhaps my hypothesis is that unless there is an
>established, conventional way of expressing multiple
>nominals, no emphasis or prominence can be stressed.
>The same would be true of conventional syntax.
>To vary the conventional order of words would surely
>be emphatic. But if many  sentences in a
>language have the order: SVO, (Subj. Verb Object)
>I would think that no prominence can be attributed
>to the S by virtue of the fact that it
>is "on the left."
>Alan B. Thomas
>"Unless God provides indisputable, divine evidence of His revelation to
> it must be rejected at all costs...."
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Carl W. Conrad
Department of Classics, Washington University (Emeritus)
Most months: 1647 Grindstaff Road/Burnsville, NC 28714/(828) 675-4243
cwconrad at OR cwconrad at

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