Wayne Leman wayne_leman at
Tue Oct 2 21:30:41 EDT 2001

> Interesting--I assume you're referring to the little categorization on
> 377. My inclination here is to think that he's aware that "attendant
> circumstances" is the pigeonhole into which such items as META CARAS are
> generally shoved, but that the semantic function here really is rather
> "manner."

Carl, on p. 161 of GGBTB Wallace also notes:

"a. Definition

The dative substantive denotes the manner in which the action of the verb is
accomplished. ... The manner can be an accompanying action, attitude,
emotion, or circumstance. Hence, such a dative noun routinely has an
abstract quality. This usage is relatively common, being supplanted by EN +
dative (or META + gen.) in Koine Greek."

It seems to me that META CARAS is simply encoding the semantics of
accompanying emotion, that is, telling the emotional manner in which the
action of a verb was carried out. To my mind, accompanying circumstance
wouldn't fit here since CARAS is not treated as a verbal notion in Greek
syntax, and when I hear the word circumstance I think of something which is
"verby." But I might be missing the technical usage by Greek grammarians of
the term circumstance and viewing the term through the lens of other

BTW, I assume you have not missed the fact that the word "circumstance"
itself contains within it the Latin preposition CUM which you feel may have
influenced the Greek here.

Wayne Leman
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