myron kauk myronkauk at
Wed Jan 10 12:07:26 EST 2001

Robert wrote

> In James 4,5 there exists expression PROS FQONON that is translated in polish Bible as adverb: jealously, enviously. Doesn't exist in Greek > one Adverb for it? Which meaning such construction has?

James 4:5 is notoriously difficult to translate.  Is TO PNEUMA the subject or the object of the verb?  Does it refer to the Holy Spirit or to the human spirit.  Notice the difference between these English translations.

NAS Or do you think that the Scripture speaks to no purpose: "He jealously desires the Spirit which He has made to dwell in us"?

NIV Or do you think Scripture says without reason that the spirit he caused to live in us envies intensely?

The phrase PROS FQONON is literally something like "with/unto  jealousy/envy" and is probably best understood adverbially, modifying EPIPOQEI.
> Similar expression exists in 1John 5,16 hAMARTIAN  MH PROS QANATON.  Is this expression the same kind like in James 4,5 or it is
> something else? How one should translate the statement from 1John 5,16? I found 2 different proposals: Mortal sin and sin leading to the
> death.
In 1 John 5:16 the phrase PROS QANATON occurs three times.  The last occurrence clearly modifies hAMARTIA, a noun.  The second modifies the participle hAMARTANOUSIN and the first could be taken to modify the participle hAMARTONONTA or the cognate accusative hAMARTIAN.  Since the noun contains a verbal idea I would argue that all of these again are in a sense adverbial, thus translations such as "sinning unto death," "a sin leading to death," "a deadly sin."
Westcott notes that in rabbinic literature the phrase "sin unto death" referred to a sin worthy of captial punishment.  He argues by extension that in the Christian community it would refer to sins punishable by exclusion from the community.
Smalley translates "mortal sin" but then admits that this is anachronistic since the distinction between "mortal" and "venial" sins is a development of later theology and not discernible in the NT literature.  He argues that the distinction in the OT was between intentional and unintentional sins.
Marshall understands it as sins incompatible with being a child of God and Bruce equates this with apostasy.
Grace be with you,
Myron C. Kauk
myronkauk at

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