Theodore H Mann thmann at
Sun Aug 6 08:21:11 EDT 2000

Greetings All:

I notice that the term NEPHROUS, in Rev.2:23, is translated "minds" in
the NASB, NIV and NRSV, and "reins" in the KJV.  My lexicon tells me that
NEPHROS means "kidney."  How do we get from kidneys to minds?  I read
somewhere that people of "olden days" believed that various human
emotions and traits emanated from different organs in the body.  Is this
true?  Was that Paul's understanding when he  so often used the term
KARDIA?  For example, when he says: "... their foolish hearts were
darkened" (Rom.1:21), did he believe that the human condition he is
describing somehow involved the human organ called the heart?  Mounce
says that the heart was "regarded as the seat of feeling, impulse,
affection, desire..." (Analytical Lexicon to the Greek NT, p.263).   Even
today we use such phrases as: "He has a good heart," or "She sure has a
lot of gall."  

Any thoughts?

Ted Mann
thmann at
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