Gender of TO PNEUMA

Joe A. Friberg JoeFriberg at
Fri Nov 19 12:55:31 EST 1999

Thanks for the specific discussion, Carl!

I believe there was also a feminine form available: PARAKLHTRIA, though less

Joe F.
----- Original Message -----
From: Carl W. Conrad <cwconrad at>

> I'd say, furthermore, that we have
> to understand PARAKLHTOS as a substantive, not simply a verbal adjective
> this instance, and that the masculine substantive was already present in
> Greek (see the citation from LSJ below). One might imagine a neuter form
> , but I think the reason we don't see that
> in John's gospel is that the masculine substantive hO PARAKLHTOS was
> already in existence.
> LSJ (from Perseus): PARAKLHTOS,ON, called to one's aid, in a court of
> justice : as Subst., legal assistant, advocate, Dem. 19.1, Lycurg. Fr.102,
> etc.
> 2. summoned, DOULOI D.C.46.20, cf. BGU601.12 (ii A.D.).
> II. intercessor, Ph.2.520 : hence in ti= Ph. NT, PARAKLHTOS, of the Holy
> Spirit, Ev.Jo.14.16, cf. 1 Ep.Jo.2.1.

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