winberyc at winberyc at
Tue Jan 5 10:17:33 EST 1999

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To: Biblical Greek <b-greek at>
From: "Carlton L. Winbery" <winberyc at>
Subject: Re: EPEITA in Gal 1.18, 21 and 2.1
Cc: Jack Painter <jackp at>

Jack Painter wrote;

>I have a question regarding the sequence of events in Galatian 1 and 2. The
>temporal adverb EPEITA occurs three times in 1.18, 21 and 2.1. Longenecker,
>Galatians, 45, argues " the probablity is that the three years of 1.18 and
>the fourteen years of 2.1 are to be understood concurrently, not
>consecutively--that is, that both are to be measured from Paul's conversion
>and not that the fourteen years are to be counted from his first Jerusalem
>visit." Longenecker give no external examples to undergird his proposition.
>J.L. Martyn, Galatians, 180-182, comes to roughly the same position.
>Bauer and LSJ seem to imply that EPEITA used in a temporal sequence denotes
>succession (consecutive events) not concurrency. In Paul's other use of the
>term this way, succession is the impication (1Cor 15.5-8). Are there any
>examples in Greek literature to anyone's knowledge that would indicate

Jack, a study of the uses of EPEITA will not answer this question (IMHO). A
possible eg. of concurrency in Paul could be I Cor. 12:28, but I see that
as simple succession in a list. Most of the commentators that I have read
who take the 14 yrs as including the 3yrs take an early date for Galatians
and such an interpretation is necessary to prevent Paul from being
converted before Christ was crucified, (strictly an opinion.)

Carlton L. Winbery
Fogleman Prof. of Religion
Louisiana College
winbery at
Phones 318 487 7241, Home 318 448 6103

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