Rom 12:2 part 1 function of KAI

Carl W. Conrad cwconrad at
Mon Jan 4 10:31:52 EST 1999

At 12:07 PM +0000 1/4/99, Maurice A. O'Sullivan wrote:
>At 10:12 04/01/99 +0100, you wrote:
>>of grammar or syntax). So here is my first questions:
>>1. What can be said about the function of the KAI in Rom 12:2, connecting
>>V.1 and V.2. As far as I know, on the grammatical level there are the two
>>main options: a) either KAI is a normal conjunction or b) the beginning of a
>>new sentence (hebr. -waw). -
>Given that for almost 1500 years Paul's text was not divided into verses,
>would you care to re-phrase your question?

Maurice is, of course, and as usual,right in this regard, but I'd rephrase
that question as how, if KAI links the expressions set forth in what later
became verses 1 and 2 respectively, how are those expressions related.
Perhaps this is too simple an answer, but I'd say that in verse 1 we have
an "indirect" formulation of the command: PARAKALW hUMAS PARASTHSAI TA
SWMATA, while the command becomes a direct imperative in verse 2: KAI MH

However, I think one might also see in this second verse an intensification
of what was stated in verse 1 as an urgent admonition; I've always thought
that the phrasing of MH SUSCHMATIZESQE ... ALLA METAMORFOUSQE is a
rephrasing in terms of apocalyptic eschatology of the Deuteronomic warning
against "becoming like the nations"--and so one might say that the KAI
doesn't simply link a second and different bit of advice but an intensified
form of the initial admonition, so that one might translate: "and don't
even pattern yourselves in terms of this world-age, but ..." or "an in
fact, you should not pattern yourselves ..."

Carl W. Conrad
Department of Classics/Washington University
One Brookings Drive/St. Louis, MO, USA 63130/(314) 935-4018
Home: 7222 Colgate Ave./St. Louis, MO 63130/(314) 726-5649
cwconrad at OR cconrad at

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