Carlton Winbery winberyc at
Tue Oct 6 11:46:56 EDT 1998

>Okay, this is a question destined to show my lack of skill in understanding
>points of grammar and such, but here goes: does a subjunctive ever occur
>without hINA or EAV or the like? Of course, to translate hINA as "in order
>that" I suppose you would need a subjunctive following it to complete the
>thought--"in order that he *might*." I don't know if this is making much
>sense, but it could be that I have answered my own question. Imagine that...
>Allison Sanders

The subjunctive is by no means confined to subordinate clauses as the name
might imply.  It is often used as the verb in independent clauses.  When it
does it functions as hortatory, I Jn 4:7 "Let us love AGAPWMEN one
another," Prohibition, Jn 3:7 MH QAUMASHiS "Marvel not that I . . ." in
deliberative sentences, Lk 3:10 "What should we do?" POIHSWMEN, Emphatic
negative Lk. 6:37 OU MH KRIQHTE "You will never be judged."  There are
instances of the subjunctive used in subordinate clauses that do not
involve EAN or hINA.  The comparative clauses with hWS where there is an
element of contingency Mk. 4:26 "As a man casting BALHi seed upon the

Hope this helps.

Carlton L. Winbery
Fogleman Professor of Religion
Louisiana College
Pineville, LA 71359
winberyc at
winbery at

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