[permaculture] Moringa - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Wed May 27 00:34:01 EDT 2015
Moringa - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
*Moringa*, native to parts of Africa and Asia, is the sole
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genus> in the flowering plant
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Family> *Moringaceae*. The name is derived
from *murungai*/*muringa*, the Tamil
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malayalam_language> word for drumstick
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drumstick_%28vegetable%29>. It contains 13
species <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Species> from tropical
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tropics> and subtropical
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subtropics> climates that range in size from
tiny herbs <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbaceous_plant> to massive trees
The most widely cultivated species is *Moringa oleifera
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moringa_oleifera>*, a multipurpose tree
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multipurpose_tree> native to the foothills of
the Himalayas <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Himalayas> in northwestern India
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moringa#cite_note-4> and cultivated
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plant_cultivation> throughout the tropics.
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moringa#cite_note-Janick-5> *M. stenopetala
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moringa_stenopetala>*, an African
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Africa> species, is also widely grown, but to
a much lesser extent than *M. oleifera*.
*Moringa* species grow quickly in many types of environments.
Much of the plant is edible by humans or by farm animals. The leaves are
rich in protein <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein>, vitamin A
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_A>, vitamin B
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_B>, vitamin C
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_C>, and minerals.
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moringa#cite_note-Janick-5> A 100-g portion
of fresh moringa leaves has 9.3 g protein, 434 mg calcium, 404 mg
potassium, 738 μg vitamin A, and 164 mg vitamin C.
Feeding the high-protein leaves to cattle
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cattle> has been shown to increase weight
gain by up to 32% and milk <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milk> production
by 43 to 65%.
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moringa#cite_note-TreesforLife-7> The seeds
contain 30 to 40% oil <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ben_oil> that is high
in oleic acid <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oleic_acid>, while degreased
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flour> is 61% protein.
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moringa#cite_note-8> The defatted meal is a
flocculant <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flocculation#Flocculant> and can
be used in water purification
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_purification> to settle out sediments
and undesirable organisms.
*Moringa oleifera* (seedpods), Maui, Kahului
*Moringa* cultivation is on the rise in Honduras and all across South
America. Claims are made that it is a profitable means of combating
deforestation <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deforestation>, but *Moringa*
species are not native to the forests of the New World. As of 2012, support
for *Moringa* farmers is being offered by the Honduran federal government
through the Secretary of Agriculture and by private foreign investment
firms. The plant's market potential is widespread given its easy growth and
high nutrient content. As described below, the plant is valued for its
leaves and high-protein seeds. It can also be made into defatted meal. *M.
oleifera* silviculture <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silviculture> is being
promoted as a means to combat poverty <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poverty>
and malnutrition <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malnutrition>.
*M. oleifera* is being cultivated in poverty-stricken nations, such as Niger
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niger>, as a primary source of food and
nutrients, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moringa#cite_note-gs-10> and a
source of income through sales due to widespread and global marketability.[
In Haiti, moringa is planted as a windbreak and to reduce soil erosion. The
trees provide many products from oil to soil amendments (fertilizers) and
tisanes <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbal_tea> made from the leaves.
In Mexico <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mexico>, Reserva Las Estacas, in
Morelos <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_of_Morelos>, includes the
cultivation of moringa.
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