[b-hebrew] words with the same root letters: XCC-N TMR
fournet.arnaud at wanadoo.fr
Fri Jan 14 15:37:44 EST 2011
From: JimStinehart at aol.com
In analyzing the tsade in XCC-N TMR at Genesis 14: 7, let me just briefly
set forth my own view as to Late Bronze Age sibilants. Although scholars
disagree about the pronunciation of sibilants in early Biblical Hebrew, I
believe the following is one mainstream view, being the view that I have
Z/zayin is a voiced affricate.
It's not necessarily affricate although it is certainly voiced.
C is an emphatic affricate: TS.
It's not necessarily affricate although it is certainly emphatic.
$/shin is SH.
That was doubtless /s/.
%/sin is emphatic s.
sin was a lateral fricative, probably voiceless in (proto-)Hebrew.
S/samekh is non-emphatic s.
It was a voiceless affricate /ts/.
[On that view, the only change in the sibilants by the Middle Ages was
that %/sin had come to be pronounced as non-emphatic s; there no longer was
any emphatic s in Hebrew, and sin/% and samekh/S had come to have the
If Hurrian usually, though not always, pronounced s as SH, and if Genesis
slightly simplifies the Hurrian pronunciation, then only 3 sibilants are
needed to record Hurrian in Hebrew: Z and $ and C. No % or S is needed
[emphatic or non-emphatic s], because s was usually pronounced $ in Hurrian
[and was always so treated in Genesis].
Logically, we would expect z, shin, (maybe sin ?) and samekh to reflect
Based on my own research as to dozens of names in Genesis that I see as
being Hurrian names, samekh/S and sin/% were n-e-v-e-r used in rendering
Hurrian names in Hebrew. Hebrew tsade/C, an emphatic affricate, was used to
render the Hurrian affricate TS, even if that Hurrian affricate may have
So xa-tsi-tsi in Hurrian is XCC in Biblical Hebrew. XCC-N TMR at Genesis
14: 7 represents xa-tsi-tsi-ni tam-ri in Hurrian, it means “Wisdom-the Nine”
in Hurrian, and it’s referring to xa-si/Hasi in the Hurrian-dominated Beqa
Valley where, per Amarna Letter EA 175, there was an enclave of Amorites in
Year 14. Amarna Letter EA 175 and the second half of Genesis 14: 7 are
reporting the identical event, with Genesis 14: 7 having been composed a
mere one year after that traumatic event.
We have already seen that this theory is false.
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