[b-hebrew] words with the same root letters: XCC-N TMR
jimstinehart at aol.com
jimstinehart at aol.com
Mon Jan 10 08:46:39 EST 2011
Yigal Levin wrote: “Jim, since I don't know Hurrian I can't argue with you, but there is no reference to "Amorites" in EA 175, and what in the world does anything there have to do with Hazazon-Tamar?”
Amarna Letter EA 175 probably dates to Year 14 (of Akhenaten’s troubled 17-year reign), which is the e-x-a-c-t year referenced in Genesis 14: 5. The princeling ruler of Hasi in the Beqa Valley in Amarna Letter EA 175 is Il-dayyi. That is a west Semitic name, very probably being an Amorite name, as “Il” is a hallmark of an Amorite name. Richard S. Hess has noted that although the Beqa Valley was generally dominated by Hurrians, with “northern” names, there was an enclave of (Amorite) princelings with west Semitic names at and near Hasi in the mid-14th century BCE:
““In the Lebanese Biqa [the Beqa Valley],…Northern names [that is, Hurrian-type names] predominate. …[But] if Hasi, Hasabu, and Eni-sasi, which all have West Semitic names for leaders, are to be located near one another in the Biqa, then there is a cluster of West Semitic leaders in the midst of a valley of Northern leaders.” Richard S. Hess, “Cultural Aspects of Onomastic Distribution in the Amarna Texts”, Ugarit-Forshungen (1989), issue 21, at pp. 213-214.
“Hasi” is Xasi. As I noted in my prior post, that’s probably xas-su or a shortened form of xa-si-su in Akkadian, meaning “wisdom”. That’s a cognate to xa-tsi-tsi, which is the Hurrian word for “wisdom”. The Hurrians’ “wisdom” regarding primeval matters centered around the number nine, as I noted in my prior post. So in Hurrian, the following city name makes sense: “Wisdom-the Nine”/xa-tsi-tsi-ni tam-ri, which would be rendered in Hebrew as: XCC-N TMR. Note the 7 letter-for-letter spelling accuracy of the Biblical text in rendering this Hurrian city name. And XCC in the Biblical text is similar to x-s-s or, in shortened form, x-s, which is Xasi/Hasi, being the Akkadian version of this Hurrian name.
As to checking out the Hurrian (and Akkadian for “wisdom”), just take a look at Dr. Fournet’s website: http://www.nostratic.ru/books/(432)bomhard-hurrian.pdf
At p. 87, we read: “*[xatsitsi] ‘intelligence, wit’
EL xazzizzi/xasisi. CA <xa-(as)-sí-(is)-sí>.”
That’s XCC in Hebrew. But what about Akkadian?
At footnote 32 on p. 20, we read: “This word means ‘divine wisdom , god of wisdom’ <e-ni-xa-az-zi-iz-zi-ya>. The Semitic form is <x s s> (cf. Akkadian xassu ‘intelligent, wise’, xasāsu ‘to heed a deity, to be pious; to be intelligent, understanding; to remember; etc.’).”
P. 15 is one of the places that refers to “-ni ‘definite article’.” So “the wisdom” in Hurrian is represented by the Hebrew letters XCC-N.
P. 58 tells us that “tamri” is the cardinal number “nine” in Hurrian. That’s TMR in the Hebrew rendering of this Hurrian word. So XCC-N TMR is “Wisdom-the Nine” in Hurrian.
By contrast, as you well know, there is nothing similar to XCC as a name attested at or near the southern end of the Dead Sea. No, if you’re looking for XCC, the place to look is Hasi in the Beqa Valley. Genesis 14: 1-11 has p-i-n-p-o-i-n-t historical accuracy, as verified by the Amarna Letters. When the second half of Genesis 14: 7 says that there were Amorites at XCC-N TMR who in Year 14 were attacked by forces including a Hurrian [)RYWK] and Hittite [TD(L] name, then take it to the bank, there indeed were Amorites at Hasi [the Akkadian shortened version of xa-tsi-tsi-ni tam-ri/XCC-N TMR in Hurrian] in the Hurrian-dominated Beqa Valley who in Year 14 were attacked by forces including a Hurrian [Etakkama] and Hittite [Hatti] name. Amarna Letter EA 175 and the second half of Genesis 14: 7 are describing one and the same event.
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