some questions about Rom 3.27

Steven R. Lo Vullo doulos at
Tue Jan 9 00:31:57 EST 2001

On 1/8/01 9:14 PM, Moon-Ryul Jung wrote:

> [Moon]
> Aha! I get your point. Adverbs modify ordinary verbs, but I never
> thought that they modify copulative verbs like ESTIN.
> Consider "Mary is in the garden". In this case,
> "Is in the garden" is predicate to the subject "Mary".
> Adverbial "In the garden" does not seem to modify "IS".
> If so, "Mary is" itself should be
> able to form a complete sentence and make sense. But it is not.
> In fact, "is" simply links "Mary" and "in the garden", so that
> "in the garden" is really a predicate to "Mary".
> In Greek, copulative verbs are not needed to say "Mary is in the
> garden". In Greek, we would have a sentence "Mary in the garden".
> Here, it is more obvious that "Mary" is the subject and "in the
> garden" is the predicate, or vice versa. Any sentence has
> the subject and the predicate.
> In sum, in the case of copulative verbs, adverbials do not
> "modify" them, but are predicates linked to the subjects via
> the copulative verbs.

Thank you. That is a very helpful answer to my question.

> [Moon]
> Because POU hH KAUCHSIS is a complete sentence in itself, one of the two
> parts should be either the subject  or the predicate.
> So, the whole problem comes from the assumption that ESTIN is omitted from
> POU hH KAUCHSIS. Here POU itself is a predicate. Perhaps I am in a better
> position to understand this problem, because my mother tongue, Korean,
> has sentences of the forms SUBJECT ADJECTIVE and SUBJECT VERB.
> In contrast, in English, the form SUBJECT ADJECTIVE is ungrammatical.
> But don't kids at 4 or 5 often use such forms?

In the course I took on diagramming, we were taught to supply what was
variously called the "elliptical" or "implied" or "understood" verb, which
was often a copulative verb. Do you think this is the wrong way to approach
the matter in diagramming? If so, how would you diagram the above

Steve Lo Vullo,
Madison, WI


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