[b-hebrew] Samaritan Pentateuch

C L sigebryht at yahoo.com
Sat Mar 23 14:17:13 EDT 2013


Chris and Kevin,

Fantastic! Thank you for pointing out these resources for downloading the Samaritan Pentateuch. Good stuff.

Sincerely,

Christopher Lovelace





>________________________________
> From: "b-hebrew-request at lists.ibiblio.org" <b-hebrew-request at lists.ibiblio.org>
>To: b-hebrew at lists.ibiblio.org 
>Sent: Friday, March 22, 2013 9:50 PM
>Subject: b-hebrew Digest, Vol 123, Issue 18
> 
>----- Forwarded Message -----
>
>Send b-hebrew mailing list submissions to
>    b-hebrew at lists.ibiblio.org
>
>To subscribe or unsubscribe via the World Wide Web, visit
>    http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/b-hebrew
>or, via email, send a message with subject or body 'help' to
>    b-hebrew-request at lists.ibiblio.org
>
>You can reach the person managing the list at
>    b-hebrew-owner at lists.ibiblio.org
>
>When replying, please edit your Subject line so it is more specific
>than "Re: Contents of b-hebrew digest..."
>
>Today's Topics:
>
>   1. Samaritan Pentateuch On-Line? (C L)
>   2. Re: Samaritan Pentateuch On-Line? (Kevin W. Woodruff)
>   3. Re: Samaritan Pentateuch On-Line? (C.N. Bartch)
>
>Dear Carla,
>
>Thank you for posting the notice about the Samaritan Pentateuch. Volume 1 is available for download at archive.org, thanks to being out of copyright: http://archive.org/details/derhebrischepent01gall. I was reading it a bit this morning, and it is fantastic. So far, the copy I have seen is very clear, and the citation of textual witnesses along the left margin is a very welcome feature. Would that other critical editions cited their witnesses in this fashion.
>
>Does anyone know where we might be able to download the remaining volumes in this set? They do not appear to be on archive.org, but volumes 2-5 must surely be out of copyright.
>
>Sincerely,
>
>Christopher Lovelace
>
>
>
>
>There is a print edition in modern Hebrew script of the
 Samaritan Pentateuch:
>Der Hebräische Pentateuch der Samaritaner;
>August Freiherrn von Gall, editor
>Alfred Töpelmann Verlag, 1918
> 
>
>
>
>
>Best wishes,
> 
>Carla Sulzbach
>
>
>
>
>
>>________________________________
>> From: "b-hebrew-request at lists.ibiblio.org" <b-hebrew-request at lists.ibiblio.org>
>>To: b-hebrew at lists.ibiblio.org 
>>Sent: Wednesday, March 20, 2013 12:00 PM
>>Subject: b-hebrew Digest, Vol 123, Issue 17
>> 
>>----- Forwarded Message -----
>>
>>Send b-hebrew mailing list submissions to
>>    b-hebrew at lists.ibiblio.org
>>
>>To subscribe or unsubscribe via the World Wide Web, visit
>>    http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/b-hebrew
>>or, via email, send a message with subject or body 'help' to
>>    b-hebrew-request at lists.ibiblio.org
>>
>>You can reach the person managing the list at
>>    b-hebrew-owner at lists.ibiblio.org
>>
>>When replying, please edit your Subject line so it is more specific
>>than "Re: Contents of b-hebrew digest..."
>>
>>Today's Topics:
>>
>>   1.
 Re: P R (H/"Pharaoh"" Three Meanings (JimStinehart at aol.com)
>>   2. Re: Samaritan Pentateuch (George Athas)
>>
>>Will:
>> 
>>In analyzing PR(H [“Pharaoh”] in the received 
alphabetical text on the assumption that this Biblical Egyptian name was 
originally written down in Akkadian cuneiform, let’s examine how Egyptian aleph and Egyptian ayin come out in the Akkadian cuneiform of the Amarna Letters.  You will quickly see that in Akkadian cuneiform, Egyptian ayin cannot be distinguished from Egyptian aleph.
>> 
>>As I noted previously, Amarna Letter EA 29 features mAat being spelled as mu-u, where the same Akkadian vowel U is used for both Egyptian aleph and Egyptian ayin.
>> 
>>But now let’s see how Akkadian cuneiform A can also 
represent both Egyptian aleph and Egyptian ayin.  In Amarna Letter EA 1: 2 written by 
Amenhotep III himself, mAat is written, as you point out, as mu-a.  To me, that means that the Akkadian vowel A can stand for Egyptian ayin, although you oddly opt for seeing no ayin whatsoever being written down by Amenhotep III.  Without getting bogged down as to that 
one example, however, it is easy to confirm that Egyptian ayin could be 
represented by the Akkadian vowel A.  That is the case in the Egyptian name ap-pi-xa in four different Amarna Letters, including EA 105: 35, and the Egyptian name xa-ip in four different Amarna Letters, including EA 107: 16, where the Akkadian cuneiform vowel A is 
used for Egyptian ayin.
>> 
>>But the Akkadian cuneiform vowel A can also be used for 
Egyptian aleph!  For example, in 
both the Amarna Letters and the Patriarchal narratives, the most frequent 
beginning of an Egyptian name is pA.  The Egyptian name pa-xa-na-te in four different Amarna Letters, including 
EA 60: 10, spells the Egyptian aleph with an A.  The Egyptian name pi-wu-ri features four 
different spellings of pA, but in three separate Amarna Letters, including EA 
287: 45 from IR-Heba of Jerusalem [whose scribe may have been the scribe who, 
shortly after leaving Jerusalem, was commissioned by the tent-dwelling Hebrews 
to write down the Patriarchal narratives in Akkadian cuneiform], the second 
letter in pA is spelled with the Akkadian vowel A.
>> 
>>So when PR(H in Genesis is setting forth an Egyptian 
name, the Hebrew alphabetical ayin/( that one sees in the received text could 
just as easily have been originally intended to be a Hebrew alphabetical aleph/).  Why?  Because that name was first written down 
in the Late Bronze Age, when the only way to write down a sophisticated 
composition like the Patriarchal narratives was by means of Akkadian cuneiform.  The Amarna Letters 
attest that sometimes the Akkadian vowel U was used to render both Egyptian aleph and Egyptian ayin, and sometimes the Akkadian vowel A was used to render 
both Egyptian aleph and Egyptian ayin.  In fact, on a more general level, Akkadian cuneiform generally was unable 
to differentiate among the various gutturals.  That applies in spades to ayin vs. aleph.
>> 
>>As to PR(H in particular, we note that Akkadian cuneiform heth could render, among other letters, alphabetical Hebrew ayin/( or 
alphabetical Hebrew heth/X, and that the Akkadian vowel A was sometimes used to 
render both Egyptian aleph and Egyptian ayin.  PR(H in the received text started out in Akkadian cuneiform as something like PR – RI – A – XI.  Those four Akkadian cuneiform signs 
could mean [among other possibilities] either (i) PR(H [per the received text], 
or (ii) P R )X, with the latter being pA ra Ax : pA ra a-khe : “Devoted to The 
Ra”, which compares nicely with Akhe-n-Aten : “Devoted to Aten”.
>> 
>>If we reverse engineer the received alphabetical text as 
to the Biblical Egyptian name PR(H and determine what the original Akkadian cuneiform signs were, we then see an  e-x-a-c-t  letter-for-letter 
match of the original cuneiform version of PR(H to P R )X : pA ra Ax : pA ra a-khe : “Devoted to The Ra”.  Will, 
it’s an  e-x-a-c-t  match of  a-l-l  the letters.  It’s not merely close, it’s  e-x-a-c-t .
>> 
>>Surely you would agree that if the Patriarchal narratives 
were not originally written down in the Bronze Age using Akkadian cuneiform, 
they can’t be old and accurate as to an historical Patriarchal Age.  To see then if the Patriarchal 
narratives are or are not truly ancient and accurate, simply reverse engineer 
the Egyptian names in the received text to determine how they would have 
originally been recorded in Akkadian cuneiform.  Then the gorgeous result is  e-x-a-c-t  letter-for-letter matches to Late Amarna nomenclature that in each case fit the storyline perfectly.  The greatest wordsmith of all time 
created these Biblical Egyptian names.  But we cannot appreciate them unless we reverse engineer the alphabetical 
Hebrew letters in the received text to determine the Akkadian cuneiform 
originals, and then ask what Egyptian names could result from such Akkadian cuneiform originals.  For example, 
the name of Joseph’s Egyptian priestly father-in-law, once it is recognized that 
the final intended letter was heth, not ayin, is:  pA wAt  -Y-  pA rx, referencing such priest’s 
devotion to Akhenaten as allegedly being “the only one/pA who knows/rx the 
distant/pA wAt [God]”.  Only Akhenaten ever made such a daunting theological claim.  And Akhenaten himself is fittingly 
referred to as P R )X : pA ra Ax : pA ra a-khe : “Devoted to The Ra”, which 
exemplifies Late Amarna theology perfectly.
>> 
>>The true antiquity and historical accuracy of the 
Patriarchal narratives come shining through when we reverse engineer the 
alphabetical Hebrew letters in these Biblical Egyptian names to determine the Akkadian cuneiform original signs, and then ask what Egyptian names could result 
from those original Akkadian cuneiform signs.  We find that, unlike all previous 
attempts to explain these Biblical Egyptian names, we don’t have to stretch a 
single letter!  Rather, we merely 
need to recognize that Akkadian cuneiform writing, such as in the original 
written version of the Patriarchal narratives, usually did not distinguish one 
guttural from another.
>> 
>>Jim Stinehart
>>Evanston ,  Illinois
>>This further response comes courtesy of Carla Sulzbach in Montreal:
>>
>>
>>There is a print edition in modern Hebrew script of the Samaritan Pentateuch:
>>Der Hebräische Pentateuch der Samaritaner;
>>August Freiherrn von Gall, editor
>>Alfred Töpelmann Verlag, 1918
>> 
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>Best wishes,
>> 
>>Carla Sulzbach
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>GEORGE ATHAS
>>Dean of Research,
>>Moore Theological College (moore.edu.au)
>>Sydney, Australia
>> 
>>_______________________________________________
>>b-hebrew mailing list
>>b-hebrew at lists.ibiblio.org
>>http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/b-hebrew
>>
>>
>Christopher:
> 
>You may check this site:
>
>http://patrologia.narod.ru/biblia/samarit/
> 
>Kevin
>Prof. Kevin W. Woodruff, M.Div., M.S.I.S.
>Library Director/Reference Librarian, Assistant Professor of Bible, Greek, Theological Bibliography and Research
>Tennessee Temple University/Temple Baptist Seminary, 1815 Union Ave. 
>Chattanooga, Tennessee 37404, United States of America
>423/493-4252 (office) 423/698-9447 (home) 423/493-4497 (FAX)
>Cierpke at prodigy.net http://pages.prodigy.net/cierpke/woodruff.htm
>
>--- On Fri, 3/22/13, C L <sigebryht at yahoo.com> wrote:
>
>
>>From: C L <sigebryht at yahoo.com>
>>Subject: [b-hebrew] Samaritan Pentateuch On-Line?
>>To: "b-hebrew at lists.ibiblio.org" <b-hebrew at lists.ibiblio.org>
>>Date: Friday, March 22, 2013, 12:01 PM
>>
>>
>>Dear Carla,
>>
>>Thank you for posting the notice about the Samaritan Pentateuch. Volume 1 is available for download at archive.org, thanks to being out of copyright: http://archive.org/details/derhebrischepent01gall. I was reading it a bit this morning, and it is fantastic. So far, the copy I have seen is very clear, and the citation of textual witnesses along the left margin is a very welcome feature. Would that other critical editions cited their witnesses in this fashion.
>>
>>Does anyone know where we might be able to download the remaining volumes in this set? They do not appear to be on archive.org, but volumes 2-5 must surely be out of copyright.
>>
>>Sincerely,
>>
>>Christopher Lovelace
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>There is a print edition in modern Hebrew script of the Samaritan Pentateuch:
>>Der Hebräische Pentateuch der Samaritaner;
>>August Freiherrn von Gall, editor
>>Alfred Töpelmann Verlag, 1918
>> 
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>Best wishes,
>> 
>>Carla Sulzbach
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>>________________________________
>>> From: "b-hebrew-request at lists.ibiblio.org" <b-hebrew-request at lists.ibiblio.org>
>>>To: b-hebrew at lists.ibiblio.org 
>>>Sent: Wednesday, March 20, 2013 12:00 PM
>>>Subject: b-hebrew Digest, Vol 123, Issue 17
>>>
>>>----- Forwarded Message -----
>>>
>>>Send b-hebrew mailing list submissions to
>>>    b-hebrew at lists.ibiblio.org
>>>
>>>To subscribe or unsubscribe via the World Wide Web, visit
>>>    http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/b-hebrew
>>>or, via email, send a message with subject or body 'help'
 to
>>>    b-hebrew-request at lists.ibiblio.org
>>>
>>>You can reach the person managing the list at
>>>    b-hebrew-owner at lists.ibiblio.org
>>>
>>>When replying, please edit your Subject line so it is more specific
>>>than "Re: Contents of b-hebrew digest..."
>>>
>>>Today's Topics:
>>>
>>>  1. Re: P R (H/"Pharaoh"" Three Meanings (JimStinehart at aol.com)
>>>  2. Re: Samaritan Pentateuch (George Athas)
>>>
>>>Will:
>>> 
>>>In analyzing PR(H [“Pharaoh”] in the received alphabetical text on the assumption that this Biblical Egyptian name was originally written down in Akkadian cuneiform, let’s examine how Egyptian aleph and Egyptian ayin come out in the Akkadian cuneiform of the Amarna Letters.  You will quickly see that in Akkadian cuneiform, Egyptian ayin cannot be distinguished from Egyptian aleph.
>>> 
>>>As I noted previously, Amarna Letter EA 29 features mAat being spelled as mu-u, where the same Akkadian vowel U is used for both Egyptian aleph and Egyptian ayin.
>>> 
>>>But now let’s see how Akkadian cuneiform A can also represent both Egyptian aleph and Egyptian ayin.  In Amarna Letter EA 1: 2 written by Amenhotep III himself, mAat is written, as you point out, as mu-a.  To me, that means that the Akkadian vowel A can stand for Egyptian ayin, although you oddly opt for seeing no ayin whatsoever being written down by Amenhotep III.  Without getting bogged down as to that one example, however, it is easy to confirm that Egyptian ayin could be represented by the Akkadian vowel A.  That is the case in the Egyptian name ap-pi-xa in four different Amarna Letters, including EA 105: 35, and the Egyptian name xa-ip in four different Amarna Letters, including EA 107: 16, where the Akkadian cuneiform vowel A is used for Egyptian ayin.
>>> 
>>>But the Akkadian cuneiform vowel A can also be used for Egyptian aleph!  For example, in both the Amarna Letters and the Patriarchal narratives, the most frequent beginning of an Egyptian name is pA.  The Egyptian name pa-xa-na-te in four different Amarna Letters, including EA 60: 10, spells the Egyptian aleph with an A.  The Egyptian name pi-wu-ri features four different spellings of pA, but in three separate Amarna Letters, including EA 287: 45 from IR-Heba of Jerusalem [whose scribe may have been the scribe who, shortly after leaving Jerusalem, was commissioned by the tent-dwelling Hebrews to write down the Patriarchal narratives in Akkadian cuneiform], the second letter in pA is spelled with the Akkadian vowel A.
>>> 
>>>So when PR(H in Genesis is setting forth an Egyptian name, the Hebrew alphabetical ayin/( that one sees in the received text could just as easily have been originally intended to be a Hebrew alphabetical aleph/).  Why?  Because that name was first written down in the Late Bronze Age, when the only way to write down a sophisticated composition like the Patriarchal narratives was by means of Akkadian cuneiform.  The Amarna Letters attest that sometimes the Akkadian vowel U was used to render both Egyptian aleph and Egyptian ayin, and sometimes the Akkadian vowel A was used to render both Egyptian aleph and Egyptian ayin.  In fact, on a more general level, Akkadian cuneiform generally was unable to differentiate among the various gutturals.  That applies in spades to ayin vs. aleph.
>>> 
>>>As to PR(H in particular, we note that Akkadian cuneiform heth could render, among other letters, alphabetical Hebrew ayin/( or alphabetical Hebrew heth/X, and that the Akkadian vowel A was sometimes used to render both Egyptian aleph and Egyptian ayin.  PR(H in the received text started out in Akkadian cuneiform as something like PR – RI – A – XI.  Those four Akkadian cuneiform signs could mean [among other possibilities] either (i) PR(H [per the received text], or (ii) P R )X, with the latter being pA ra Ax : pA ra a-khe : “Devoted to The Ra”, which compares nicely with Akhe-n-Aten : “Devoted to Aten”.
>>> 
>>>If we reverse engineer the received alphabetical text as to the Biblical Egyptian name PR(H and determine what the original Akkadian cuneiform signs were, we then see an  e-x-a-c-t  letter-for-letter match of the original cuneiform version of PR(H to P R )X : pA ra Ax : pA ra a-khe : “Devoted to The Ra”.  Will, it’s an  e-x-a-c-t  match of  a-l-l  the letters.  It’s not merely close, it’s  e-x-a-c-t .
>>> 
>>>Surely you would agree that if the Patriarchal narratives were not originally written down in the Bronze Age using Akkadian cuneiform, they can’t be old and accurate as to an historical Patriarchal Age.  To see then if the Patriarchal narratives are or are not truly ancient and accurate, simply reverse engineer the Egyptian names in the received text to determine how they would have originally been recorded in Akkadian cuneiform.  Then the gorgeous result is  e-x-a-c-t  letter-for-letter matches to Late Amarna nomenclature that in each case fit the storyline perfectly.  The greatest wordsmith of all time created these Biblical Egyptian names.  But we cannot appreciate them unless we reverse engineer the alphabetical Hebrew letters in the received text to determine the Akkadian cuneiform originals, and then ask what Egyptian names could result from such Akkadian cuneiform originals.  For example, the name of Joseph’s Egyptian priestly
 father-in-law, once it is recognized that the final intended letter was heth, not ayin, is:  pA wAt  -Y-  pA rx, referencing such priest’s devotion to Akhenaten as allegedly being “the only one/pA who knows/rx the distant/pA wAt [God]”.  Only Akhenaten ever made such a daunting theological claim.  And Akhenaten himself is fittingly referred to as P R )X : pA ra Ax : pA ra a-khe : “Devoted to The Ra”, which exemplifies Late Amarna theology perfectly.
>>> 
>>>The true antiquity and historical accuracy of the Patriarchal narratives come shining through when we reverse engineer the alphabetical Hebrew letters in these Biblical Egyptian names to determine the Akkadian cuneiform original signs, and then ask what Egyptian names could result from those original Akkadian cuneiform signs.  We find that, unlike all previous attempts to explain these Biblical Egyptian names, we don’t have to stretch a single letter!  Rather, we merely need to recognize that Akkadian cuneiform writing, such as in the original written version of the Patriarchal narratives, usually did not distinguish one guttural from another.
>>> 
>>>Jim Stinehart
>>>Evanston , Illinois
>>>This further response comes courtesy of Carla Sulzbach in Montreal:
>>>
>>>
>>>There is a print edition in modern Hebrew script of the Samaritan Pentateuch:
>>>Der Hebräische Pentateuch der Samaritaner;
>>>August Freiherrn von Gall, editor
>>>Alfred Töpelmann Verlag, 1918
>>> 
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>>Best wishes,
>>> 
>>>Carla Sulzbach
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>>GEORGE ATHAS
>>>Dean of Research,
>>>Moore Theological College (moore.edu.au)
>>>Sydney, Australia
>>>
>>>_______________________________________________
>>>b-hebrew mailing list
>>>b-hebrew at lists.ibiblio.org
>>>http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/b-hebrew
>>>
>>>
>>-----Inline Attachment Follows-----
>>
>>
>>_______________________________________________
>>b-hebrew mailing list
>>b-hebrew at lists.ibiblio.org
>>http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/b-hebrew
>> 
>The full edition is available here: http://digitalcommons.mcmaster.ca/mcmastercollection/163/
>
>
>Its a beautiful scan too!
>
>
>~Chris Bartch
>
>
>On Fri, Mar 22, 2013 at 9:01 AM, C L <sigebryht at yahoo.com> wrote:
>
>Dear Carla,
>>
>>Thank you for posting the notice about the Samaritan Pentateuch. Volume 1 is available for download at archive.org, thanks to being out of copyright: http://archive.org/details/derhebrischepent01gall. I was reading it a bit this morning, and it is fantastic. So far, the copy I have seen is very clear, and the citation of textual witnesses along the left margin is a very welcome feature. Would that other critical editions cited their witnesses in this fashion.
>>
>>Does anyone know where we might be able to download the remaining volumes in this set? They do not appear to be on archive.org, but volumes 2-5 must surely be out of copyright.
>>
>>Sincerely,
>>
>>Christopher Lovelace
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>There is a print edition in modern Hebrew script of the
 Samaritan Pentateuch:
>>Der Hebräische Pentateuch der Samaritaner;
>>August Freiherrn von Gall, editor
>>Alfred Töpelmann Verlag, 1918
>> 
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>Best wishes,
>> 
>>Carla Sulzbach
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>>________________________________
>>> From: "b-hebrew-request at lists.ibiblio.org" <b-hebrew-request at lists.ibiblio.org>
>>>To: b-hebrew at lists.ibiblio.org 
>>>Sent: Wednesday, March 20, 2013 12:00 PM
>>>Subject: b-hebrew Digest, Vol 123, Issue 17
>>> 
>>>----- Forwarded Message -----
>>>
>>>Send b-hebrew mailing list submissions to
>>>    b-hebrew at lists.ibiblio.org
>>>
>>>To subscribe or unsubscribe via the World Wide Web, visit
>>>    http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/b-hebrew
>>>or, via email, send a message with subject or body 'help' to
>>>    b-hebrew-request at lists.ibiblio.org
>>>
>>>You can reach the person managing the list at
>>>    b-hebrew-owner at lists.ibiblio.org
>>>
>>>When replying, please edit your Subject line so it is more specific
>>>than "Re: Contents of b-hebrew digest..."
>>>
>>>Today's Topics:
>>>
>>>   1.
 Re: P R (H/"Pharaoh"" Three Meanings (JimStinehart at aol.com)
>>>   2. Re: Samaritan Pentateuch (George Athas)
>>>
>>>Will:
>>> 
>>>In analyzing PR(H [“Pharaoh”] in the received 
alphabetical text on the assumption that this Biblical Egyptian name was 
originally written down in Akkadian cuneiform, let’s examine how Egyptian aleph and Egyptian ayin come out in the Akkadian cuneiform of the Amarna Letters.  You will quickly see that in Akkadian cuneiform, Egyptian ayin cannot be distinguished from Egyptian aleph.
>>> 
>>>As I noted previously, Amarna Letter EA 29 features mAat being spelled as mu-u, where the same Akkadian vowel U is used for both Egyptian aleph and Egyptian ayin.
>>> 
>>>But now let’s see how Akkadian cuneiform A can also 
represent both Egyptian aleph and Egyptian ayin.  In Amarna Letter EA 1: 2 written by 
Amenhotep III himself, mAat is written, as you point out, as mu-a.  To me, that means that the Akkadian vowel A can stand for Egyptian ayin, although you oddly opt for seeing no ayin whatsoever being written down by Amenhotep III.  Without getting bogged down as to that 
one example, however, it is easy to confirm that Egyptian ayin could be 
represented by the Akkadian vowel A.  That is the case in the Egyptian name ap-pi-xa in four different Amarna Letters, including EA 105: 35, and the Egyptian name xa-ip in four different Amarna Letters, including EA 107: 16, where the Akkadian cuneiform vowel A is 
used for Egyptian ayin.
>>> 
>>>But the Akkadian cuneiform vowel A can also be used for 
Egyptian aleph!  For example, in 
both the Amarna Letters and the Patriarchal narratives, the most frequent 
beginning of an Egyptian name is pA.  The Egyptian name pa-xa-na-te in four different Amarna Letters, including 
EA 60: 10, spells the Egyptian aleph with an A.  The Egyptian name pi-wu-ri features four 
different spellings of pA, but in three separate Amarna Letters, including EA 
287: 45 from IR-Heba of Jerusalem [whose scribe may have been the scribe who, 
shortly after leaving Jerusalem, was commissioned by the tent-dwelling Hebrews 
to write down the Patriarchal narratives in Akkadian cuneiform], the second 
letter in pA is spelled with the Akkadian vowel A.
>>> 
>>>So when PR(H in Genesis is setting forth an Egyptian 
name, the Hebrew alphabetical ayin/( that one sees in the received text could 
just as easily have been originally intended to be a Hebrew alphabetical aleph/).  Why?  Because that name was first written down 
in the Late Bronze Age, when the only way to write down a sophisticated 
composition like the Patriarchal narratives was by means of Akkadian cuneiform.  The Amarna Letters 
attest that sometimes the Akkadian vowel U was used to render both Egyptian aleph and Egyptian ayin, and sometimes the Akkadian vowel A was used to render 
both Egyptian aleph and Egyptian ayin.  In fact, on a more general level, Akkadian cuneiform generally was unable 
to differentiate among the various gutturals.  That applies in spades to ayin vs. aleph.
>>> 
>>>As to PR(H in particular, we note that Akkadian cuneiform heth could render, among other letters, alphabetical Hebrew ayin/( or 
alphabetical Hebrew heth/X, and that the Akkadian vowel A was sometimes used to 
render both Egyptian aleph and Egyptian ayin.  PR(H in the received text started out in Akkadian cuneiform as something like PR – RI – A – XI.  Those four Akkadian cuneiform signs 
could mean [among other possibilities] either (i) PR(H [per the received text], 
or (ii) P R )X, with the latter being pA ra Ax : pA ra a-khe : “Devoted to The 
Ra”, which compares nicely with Akhe-n-Aten : “Devoted to Aten”.
>>> 
>>>If we reverse engineer the received alphabetical text as 
to the Biblical Egyptian name PR(H and determine what the original Akkadian cuneiform signs were, we then see an  e-x-a-c-t  letter-for-letter 
match of the original cuneiform version of PR(H to P R )X : pA ra Ax : pA ra a-khe : “Devoted to The Ra”.  Will, 
it’s an  e-x-a-c-t  match of  a-l-l  the letters.  It’s not merely close, it’s  e-x-a-c-t .
>>> 
>>>Surely you would agree that if the Patriarchal narratives 
were not originally written down in the Bronze Age using Akkadian cuneiform, 
they can’t be old and accurate as to an historical Patriarchal Age.  To see then if the Patriarchal 
narratives are or are not truly ancient and accurate, simply reverse engineer 
the Egyptian names in the received text to determine how they would have 
originally been recorded in Akkadian cuneiform.  Then the gorgeous result is  e-x-a-c-t  letter-for-letter matches to Late Amarna nomenclature that in each case fit the storyline perfectly.  The greatest wordsmith of all time 
created these Biblical Egyptian names.  But we cannot appreciate them unless we reverse engineer the alphabetical 
Hebrew letters in the received text to determine the Akkadian cuneiform 
originals, and then ask what Egyptian names could result from such Akkadian cuneiform originals.  For example, 
the name of Joseph’s Egyptian priestly father-in-law, once it is recognized that 
the final intended letter was heth, not ayin, is:  pA wAt  -Y-  pA rx, referencing such priest’s 
devotion to Akhenaten as allegedly being “the only one/pA who knows/rx the 
distant/pA wAt [God]”.  Only Akhenaten ever made such a daunting theological claim.  And Akhenaten himself is fittingly 
referred to as P R )X : pA ra Ax : pA ra a-khe : “Devoted to The Ra”, which 
exemplifies Late Amarna theology perfectly.
>>> 
>>>The true antiquity and historical accuracy of the 
Patriarchal narratives come shining through when we reverse engineer the 
alphabetical Hebrew letters in these Biblical Egyptian names to determine the Akkadian cuneiform original signs, and then ask what Egyptian names could result 
from those original Akkadian cuneiform signs.  We find that, unlike all previous 
attempts to explain these Biblical Egyptian names, we don’t have to stretch a 
single letter!  Rather, we merely 
need to recognize that Akkadian cuneiform writing, such as in the original 
written version of the Patriarchal narratives, usually did not distinguish one 
guttural from another.
>>> 
>>>Jim Stinehart
>>>Evanston ,  Illinois
>>>This further response comes courtesy of Carla Sulzbach in Montreal:
>>>
>>>
>>>There is a print edition in modern Hebrew script of the Samaritan Pentateuch:
>>>Der Hebräische Pentateuch der Samaritaner;
>>>August Freiherrn von Gall, editor
>>>Alfred Töpelmann Verlag, 1918
>>> 
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>>Best wishes,
>>> 
>>>Carla Sulzbach
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>>GEORGE ATHAS
>>>Dean of Research,
>>>Moore Theological College (moore.edu.au)
>>>Sydney, Australia
>>> 
>>>_______________________________________________
>>>b-hebrew mailing list
>>>b-hebrew at lists.ibiblio.org
>>>http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/b-hebrew
>>>
>>>
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