[b-hebrew] Christian Use of Targums (Was "cognate alphabet"); Targums Online
smille10 at sbcglobal.net
Sun Dec 5 21:27:03 EST 2010
> From: Yigal Levin Sent: Saturday, December 04, 2010 6:24 PM
> To: 'Dewayne Dulaney'; b-hebrew at lists.ibiblio.org
> Subject: Re: [b-hebrew] Christian Use of Targums (Was "cognate alphabet");
> Targums Online
> Interesting. Targums asside, I've never really understood that passage. I agree that
> Qecep must be divine wrath, and that it's aimed at the Israelites. But why should
> God be angry at Israel because the king of Moab sacrificed his son? Conversely,
> could it be that the Moabite god (Chemosh) is angrey? That would be strange for
> the Bible as well.
[Steve Miller] Yigal, it is not that strange. Satan is real and his underling princes are also real (Dan 10:12-13). Their wrath against Israel should not have deterred Israel, but due to the apostasy of Israel at that time, they were weak and turned back by this.
> Yigal Levin
> -----Original Message-----
> From: Dewayne Dulaney [mailto:dewayne.dulaney at gmail.com]
> Sent: Saturday, December 04, 2010 10:40 PM
> To: b-hebrew at lists.ibiblio.org; leviny1 at mail.biu.ac.il; transcriber at tanach.us
> Subject: Re: Christian Use of Targums (Was "cognate alphabet"); Targums Online
> שלום עלכלכם
> Hi Chris and Yigal,
> While the average Christian is unaware of the Targums, Bible translations made by
> Christians do take into account their readings for textual criticism, and for some
> exegetical decisions bearing on translation. This is stated in the preface to the New
> International Version, the most widely used Christian Bible in English (1984
> edition; no doubt the later TNIV and the 2011 NIV do also), for example. No doubt
> other such Bibles consult the Targums also, as well as the Syriac Peshitta.
> Christians like myself who use Hebrew and Aramaic also sometimes consult
> Targums. I am teaching an adult Bible class about the non-writing prophets such as
> Elijah and Elisha in the books of Kings and Chronicles. Recently I was studying 2
> Kgs. 3, concerning the revolt of Moab against Israel (referred to on the famed
> Mesha Stele) and trying to understand why most English versions had "wrath" or
> "fury" against/upon Israel (Hebrew: ויהי קצף־גדול על־ישראל Vayehi qetzef gadol al
> Yisrael) when King Mesha of Moab sacrificed his son as a burnt offering (3:27), as
> the reason why the Israelite forces withdrew from attacking Moab.
> After consulting Jastrow (Dictionary of Targumim, Talmud and Midrashic
> Literature, online at
> http://www.TyndaleArchive.com/TABS/Jastrow/index.htm) and the Targums at
> the Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon, or CAL (online at
> http://cal1.cn.huc.edu/searching/targumsearch.html), as well as several alternate
> renderings of the Hebrew phrase in other English versions, I concluded that, while
> the idea of divine anger (of Yahweh) fit the uses of "qetzef" in other contexts,
> probably the idea in 2 Kgs. 3:27 is that the Israelite forces were horrified,
> saddened/terrified and thus demoralized enough to break off the attack and go
> home. The Targum uses "regaz", which can mean "anger", but can also mean
> "quaking"—with fear or some other emotion, I gather.
[Steve Miller] Dewayne, the Hebrew cannot possibly mean that. Looking at all the usages of qetzef in the Tanach, I only see it meaning wrath, not any of the emotions you are trying. Also there is the preposition "al", meaning that Israel is the object of the wrath, not the one who is angry.
> I wrote up my conclusions in
> a brief note for myself and used it when teaching the class; I have it as a Word
> document. If anyone would like a copy, email me off-list and I will gladly send it to
> you. Comments are welcome.
> Someone also asked if there were some online sites with the texts of Targums. The
> CAL site mentioned above is one; another good one is the Melchon Mamre site at
> http://www.mechon-mamre.org/. It has Targum Onqelos on the Torah
> (Pentateuch), including a parallel Hebrew-Aramaic Torah. (Note: there is an
> English introduction, and some of the Bible texts are in English; site navigation
> once you select a Hebrew or Aramaic text, however, is in Hebrew.) The site also has
> Rashi's commentary and the Jerusalem and Babylonian Talmuds.
> Hope these help.
> ברכך יהוה וישמרך׃ (Num. 6:24)
> דוין דולני Dewayne Dulaney
> "From the world you will have trouble. But, be brave! I have defeated the world!"—
> John 16:33, DDV (Dewayne Dulaney Version)
> My Bible blogs: http://my.opera.com/Loquor/blog/ and
Blessed is the man who walks not in
the world's counsel of sin,
nor standeth in the sinners' way,
nor with the scornful stays,
because he delights in the law
of the Lord, and in awe
he meditates both day and night.
His mind is being made right. (Psalm 1:1-2)
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