[b-hebrew] Christian Use of Targums (Was "cognate alphabet"); Targums Online

K Randolph kwrandolph at gmail.com
Sat Dec 4 19:47:58 EST 2010


While the use of Jewish writings such as the Targums can be used as a
source to try to help with reading difficult passages, you have no
contrary argument from me.

As far as QCP against Israel in this particular context, we discussed
this issue a while back. Then I mentioned that there was QCP against
Israel even before Moab’s revolt, as seen in Elisha’s response to the
king of Israel. In fact, that could be the cause of Moab’s revolt. The
specific act of the king of Moab’s sacrifice of his son is not needed
to understand this act.

Karl W. Randolph.

On 12/4/10, Dewayne Dulaney <dewayne.dulaney at gmail.com> wrote:
> שלום עלכלכם
> Hi Chris and Yigal,
> While the average Christian is unaware of the Targums, Bible
> translations made by Christians do take into account their readings
> for textual criticism, and for some exegetical decisions bearing on
> translation. This is stated in the preface to the New International
> Version, the most widely used Christian Bible in English (1984
> edition; no doubt the later TNIV and the 2011 NIV do also), for
> example. No doubt other such Bibles consult the Targums also, as well
> as the Syriac Peshitta.
> Christians like myself who use Hebrew and Aramaic also sometimes
> consult Targums. I am teaching an adult Bible class about the
> non-writing prophets such as Elijah and Elisha in the books of Kings
> and Chronicles. Recently I was studying 2 Kgs. 3, concerning the
> revolt of Moab against Israel (referred to on the famed Mesha Stele)
> and trying to understand why most English versions had "wrath" or
> "fury" against/upon Israel (Hebrew: ויהי קצף־גדול על־ישראל Vayehi
> qetzef gadol al Yisrael)
> when King Mesha of Moab sacrificed his son as a burnt offering (3:27),
> as the reason why the Israelite forces withdrew from attacking Moab.
> After consulting Jastrow (Dictionary of Targumim, Talmud and Midrashic
> Literature, online at
> http://www.TyndaleArchive.com/TABS/Jastrow/index.htm) and the Targums
> at the Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon, or CAL (online at
> http://cal1.cn.huc.edu/searching/targumsearch.html), as well as
> several alternate renderings of the Hebrew phrase in other English
> versions, I concluded that, while the idea of divine anger (of Yahweh)
> fit the uses of "qetzef" in other contexts, probably the idea in 2
> Kgs. 3:27 is that the Israelite forces were horrified,
> saddened/terrified and thus demoralized enough to break off the attack
> and go home. The Targum uses "regaz", which can mean "anger", but can
> also mean "quaking"—with fear or some other emotion, I gather. I wrote
> up my conclusions in a brief note for myself and used it when teaching
> the class; I have it as a Word document. If anyone would like a copy,
> email me off-list and I will gladly send it to you. Comments are
> welcome.
> Someone also asked if there were some online sites with the texts of
> Targums. The CAL site mentioned above is one; another good one is the
> Melchon Mamre site at http://www.mechon-mamre.org/. It has Targum
> Onqelos on the Torah (Pentateuch), including a parallel Hebrew-Aramaic
> Torah. (Note: there is an English introduction, and some of the Bible
> texts are in English; site navigation once you select a Hebrew or
> Aramaic text, however, is in Hebrew.) The site also has Rashi's
> commentary and the Jerusalem and Babylonian Talmuds.
> Hope these help.
> ברכך יהוה וישמרך׃ (Num. 6:24)
> דוין דולני Dewayne Dulaney
> --
> "From the world you will have trouble. But, be brave! I have defeated
> the world!"—John 16:33, DDV (Dewayne Dulaney Version)
> My Bible blogs: http://my.opera.com/Loquor/blog/ and
> http://hasopher.preachersfiles.com/
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