SV: Elohim -- human or divine in Psalm 82?

barre at barre at
Thu Aug 31 18:55:14 EDT 2000

The text you cite is likely from 7th century Judah. El seems to have 
fallen out of favor after the withdrawal of the north under 
Rehoboam.  But that El continued is clearly shown from a text from 
Kuntillet Ajrud where El now appears with Baal.  Furthermore, it is 
quite clear from the Ugaritic material that El is not Yahweh anymore 
than he is Baal and it does not do to say that there were many Elim 
floating around.  I cannot here go into my reconstruction of the 
history of Israelite religion, but I will recommend that you take a 
look at a website essay entitled, "El, god of Israel--Yahweh, god of 
Judah."  There are also several other essays there touching on this 
topic.  The home page is:

Thank you.


L.M. Barre, Ph.D. 
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