II Corinthians 6:11 -- ANEWiGEN
B. Ward Powers
bwpowers at optusnet.com.au
Sun Oct 28 09:00:35 EST 2001
Let me answer your questions (and also refer you to the sections in my
grammar where the various points are covered, if you care to look them up
in your copy for further info).
At 09:26 AM 011028 +0000, David Thiele wrote:
>I have what I'm sure is a very simple question but I
>really would appreciate it if someone could clarify it
>for me. I was reading II Corinthians the other day
>and came across the word ANEWiGEN, which all my
>grammatical helps tells me is a Perfect of ANOIGW.
>The word had me confused initially. I initially took
>it to be an imperfect. Apart from the lengthening of
>the diphthong, it is exactly what I would have
>expected the imperfect to look like.
I concur. It is a confusing verb (and the Greeks themselves got confused
with it, so that there are numbers of variant forms in the GNT, and not
only so, but there are a great many textual variants for the forms which
It is a compound verb (ANA + OIGW - the simplex form does not occur in the
GNT) and it has "double augmentation": first the OI- lengthens to Wi- (this
part is completely regular for a verb starting with the diphthong OI; ref.
#4.51), and then this form is augmented again to EWi-, giving an aorist
form ANEWiXA (e.g., 3ps in John 9:14). On this pattern, with this double
augment, the imperfect form would be ANEWiGON, third person singular
However some NT writers lengthened the alpha as if ANOIGW were not a
compound verb, so we find the 3ps aorist form HNOIXEN - cf. John's Gospel
(9:21, 26, 30) and Acts (5:19, Majority Text; 9:40; 12:14; 14:27), and
especially Revelation, which has more than a third of the NT occurrences of
ANOIGW (27 out of 78) and where it is always augmented as simplex not
compound. On this model, the imperfect 3ps would be HNOIGE(N). But the
imperfect does not occur in the GNT.
However sometimes the writers augmented both the root and the preposition,
creating a triple augment form (ref. #4.63), HNEWiXEN (e.g, John 9:17, 32 -
so that all three variations occur in John 9).
Similarly in the passive all three variants are found:
augment the root: ANEWiCQH or ANEWiCQHSAN (Matthew 27:52; Luke 1:64);
augment the preposition: HNOICQH and HNOICQHSAN (both in Rev 20:12);
augment both: HNEWiCQHSAN (Matthew 3:16; 9:30; John 9:10).
Then on top of that, another variant is a "direct flexion" (lacking the
theta: ref. #10:9) or "second aorist passive", HNOIGH and HNOIGHSAN (Mark
7:35; Acts 12:10; Rev 15:5)
In the perfect, the augmentation does not represent past time but acts in
lieu of reduplication (ref. #E4.36), and the active form of ANOIGW is
ANEWiGA (ref. #C4.3), a "direct flexion" (no kappa) or "second perfect", so
we find active forms ANEWiGEN (your verse, 2 Cor 6:11; 1 Cor 16:9) and
participle ANEWiGOTA (John 1:51); middle/passive participle ANEWiGMENOS
(Acts 9:8; 10:11; Romans 3:13; 2 Cor 2:12) and HNEWiGMENOS (Rev 3:8; 4:1,
10:2, 8; 19:11).
>Given that ANEWiGEN is a perfect, can someone tell me
>what the imperfect form of ANOIGW looks like?
As above; but it was not used.
>I've searched (as best I can) and cannot find this
>form. Does the imperfect form of ANOIGW occur in the
I can't find a single occurrence of an imperfect either.
>Appreciate the help of someone who knows more Greek
Interesting to see the variety of alternatives which the NT writers used
for the different forms of this verb. No wonder we find it takes a bit of
getting used to.
>Pacific Adventist University
Rev Dr B. Ward Powers Phone (International): 61-2-8714-7255
259A Trafalgar Street Phone (Australia): (02) 8714-7255
PETERSHAM NSW 2049 email: bwpowers at optusnet.com.au
AUSTRALIA. Director, Tyndale College
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