II Corinthians 6:11 -- ANEWiGEN

B. Ward Powers bwpowers at optusnet.com.au
Sun Oct 28 09:00:35 EST 2001

Hi, David.

Let me answer your questions (and also refer you to the sections in my 
grammar where the various points are covered, if you care to look them up 
in your copy for further info).

At 09:26 AM 011028 +0000, David Thiele wrote:
>I have what I'm sure is a very simple question but I
>really would appreciate it if someone could clarify it
>for me.  I was reading II Corinthians the other day
>and came across the word ANEWiGEN, which all my
>grammatical helps tells me is a Perfect of ANOIGW.
>The word had me confused initially.  I initially took
>it to be an imperfect.  Apart from the lengthening of
>the diphthong, it is exactly what I would have
>expected the imperfect to look like.

I concur. It is a confusing verb (and the Greeks themselves got confused 
with it, so that there are numbers of variant forms in the GNT, and not 
only so, but there are a great many textual variants for the forms which 

It is a compound verb (ANA + OIGW - the simplex form does not occur in the 
GNT) and it has "double augmentation": first the OI- lengthens to Wi- (this 
part is completely regular for a verb starting with the diphthong OI; ref. 
#4.51), and then this form is augmented again to EWi-, giving an aorist 
form ANEWiXA (e.g., 3ps in John 9:14). On this pattern, with this double 
augment, the imperfect form would be ANEWiGON, third person singular 

However some NT writers lengthened the alpha as if ANOIGW were not a 
compound verb, so we find the 3ps aorist form HNOIXEN - cf. John's Gospel 
(9:21, 26, 30) and Acts (5:19, Majority Text; 9:40; 12:14; 14:27), and 
especially Revelation, which has more than a third of the NT occurrences of 
ANOIGW (27 out of 78) and where it is always augmented as simplex not 
compound. On this model, the imperfect 3ps would be HNOIGE(N). But the 
imperfect does not occur in the GNT.

However sometimes the writers augmented both the root and the preposition, 
creating a triple augment form (ref. #4.63), HNEWiXEN (e.g, John 9:17, 32 - 
so that all three variations occur in John 9).

Similarly in the passive all three variants are found:
augment the root: ANEWiCQH or ANEWiCQHSAN (Matthew 27:52; Luke 1:64);
augment the preposition: HNOICQH and HNOICQHSAN (both in Rev 20:12);
augment both: HNEWiCQHSAN (Matthew 3:16; 9:30; John 9:10).

Then on top of that, another variant is a "direct flexion" (lacking the 
theta: ref. #10:9) or "second aorist passive", HNOIGH and HNOIGHSAN (Mark 
7:35; Acts 12:10; Rev 15:5)

In the perfect, the augmentation does not represent past time but acts in 
lieu of reduplication (ref. #E4.36), and the active form of ANOIGW is 
ANEWiGA (ref. #C4.3), a "direct flexion" (no kappa) or "second perfect", so 
we find active forms ANEWiGEN (your verse, 2 Cor 6:11; 1 Cor 16:9) and 
participle ANEWiGOTA (John 1:51); middle/passive participle ANEWiGMENOS 
(Acts 9:8; 10:11; Romans 3:13; 2 Cor 2:12) and HNEWiGMENOS (Rev 3:8; 4:1, 
10:2, 8; 19:11).

>Given that ANEWiGEN is a perfect, can someone tell me
>what the imperfect form of ANOIGW looks like?

As above; but it was not used.

>I've searched (as best I can) and cannot find this
>form.  Does the imperfect form of ANOIGW occur in the
>New Testament?

I can't find a single occurrence of an imperfect either.

>Appreciate the help of someone who knows more Greek
>than me.

Interesting to see the variety of alternatives which the NT writers used 
for the different forms of this verb. No wonder we find it takes a bit of 
getting used to.

>David Thiele
>Pacific Adventist University

Best wishes,


Rev Dr B. Ward Powers        Phone (International): 61-2-8714-7255
259A Trafalgar Street          Phone (Australia): (02) 8714-7255
PETERSHAM  NSW  2049      email: bwpowers at optusnet.com.au
AUSTRALIA.                         Director, Tyndale College

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