Permaculture FAQ 1.3

Emanuele John Gelsi s100962 at student.uq.edu.au
Sat Jun 22 05:17:56 EDT 1996


Dear Lord, I hope the info below helps

yours worshipfully

Emanuele John Gelsi 
s100962 at student.uq.edu.au
Dept of Anthropology and Sociology
University of Qld	Australia

> The Permaculture FAQ (1.3) is divided into 7 parts: 
> 
> 1.  Introduction to permaculture
> 2.  Permaculture defined 
> 3.  Characteristics of permaculture
> 4.  The practical application of permaculuture
> 5.  Permaculture resources: 
>        United States
>        Australia
>        Around the World
> 6.  Books on permaculture
> 7.  Electronic sources
>     
> ==============================================================
>                   INTRODUCTION TO PERMACULTURE 
> ==============================================================
> 
> The word "permaculture" was coined in 1978 by Bill Mollison, an
> Australian ecologist, and his student, David Holmgren.  It is a
> contraction of "permanent agriculture" or "permanent culture." 
> 
> Permaculture is about designing ecological human habitats and
> food production systems.  It is an approach to land use which
> integrates human dwellings, microclimate, annual and perennial
> plants, animals, soils, and water management into stable,
> productive communities.  
> 
> A central theme in permaculture is the design of ecological
> landscapes that produce food.  Emphasis is placed on multi-use
> plants and the integration of animals to recycle nutrients and
> graze weeds.  However, permaculture entails much more than just
> food production.  Permaculture design concepts are being applied
> in urban as well as rural settings, and are applicable to single
> households or whole farms and villages.  
> 
> "Integrated farming" and "ecological engineering" are terms
> sometimes used to describe permaculture.  Though helpful, these
> terms do not capture the holistic nature of permaculture and thus
> the following definitions are included to provide insight. 
> 
> ==============================================================
>                    PERMACULTURE DEFINED 
> ==============================================================
> 
> 1.   From the Permaculture Drylands Institute and published in
>      THE PERMACULTURE ACTIVIST (Autumn 1989):
> 
>      Permaculture:  the use of ecology as the basis for
>      designing integrated systems of food production,
>      housing, appropriate technology, and community
>      development.  Permaculture is built upon an ethic of
>      caring for the earth and interacting with the
>      environment in mutually beneficial ways...
> 
> 2.   From Lee Barnes (editor of KATUAH JOURNAL and PERMACULTURE 
>      CONNECTIONS), Waynesville, North Carolina:     
> 
>      Permaculture (PERMAnent agriCULTURE or PERMAnent CULTURE) is
>      a sustainable design system stressing the harmonious
>      interrelationship of humans, plants, animals and the Earth. 
>      To paraphrase the founder of permaculture, designer
>      Bill Mollison:  
> 
>           "Permaculture principles focus on thoughtful designs
>           for small-scale intensive systems which are labor
>           efficient and which use biological resources instead of
>           fossil fuels. Designs stress ecological connections and
>           closed energy and material loops.  The core of
>           permaculture is design and the working relationships
>           and connections between all things. Each component in a
>           system performs multiple functions, and each function
>           is supported by many elements.  Key to efficient design
>           is observation and replication of natural ecosystems,
>           where designers maximize diversity with polycultures,
>           stress efficient energy planning for houses and
>           settlement, using and accelerating natural plant
>           succession, and increasing the highly productive
>           "edge-zones" within the system."
> 
>      Permaculture designs have been successfully and widely
>      implemented in third-world countries, but there is current
>      need to expand these principles in temperate climates, and
>      especially urban areas to create more enjoyable and
>      sustainable human habitats.  
> 
> 3.   From Michael Pilarksi, founder of Friends of the Trees, and
>      published in INTERNATIONAL GREEN FRONT REPORT (1988):  
> 
>      Permaculture is:  the design of land use systems that are
>      sustainable and environmentally sound; the design of
>      culturally appropriate systems which lead to social
>      stability; a design system characterized by an integrated
>      application of ecological principles in land use; an
>      international movement for land use planning and design; an
>      ethical system stressing positivism and cooperation.  
> 
>      In the broadest sense, permaculture refers to land use
>      systems which promote stability in society, utilize
>      resources in a sustainable way and preserve wildlife
>      habitat and the genetic diversity of wild and domestic
>      plants and animals.  It is a synthesis of ecology and
>      geography, of observation and design.  Permaculture
>      involves ethics of earth care because the sustainable use of
>      land cannot be separated from life-styles and philosophical
>      issues. 
> 
> 4.   From a Bay Area Permaculture Group brochure, published in
>      WEST COAST PERMACULTURE NEWS & GOSSIP AND SUSTAINABLE LIVING 
>      NEWSLETTER (Fall 1995):
> 
>      Permaculture is a practical concept which can be applied in
>      the city, on the farm, and in the wilderness.  Its
>      principles empower people to establish highly productive
>      environments providing for food, energy, shelter, and other
>      material and non-material needs, including economic. 
>      Carefully observing natural patterns characteristic of a
>      particular site, the permaculture  designer gradually
>      discerns optimal methods for integrating water catchment,
>      human shelter, and energy systems with tree crops, edible
>      and useful perennial plants, domestic and wild animals and
>      aquaculture.
> 
>      Permaculture adopts techniques and principles from ecology,
>      appropriate technology, sustainable agriculture, and the
>      wisdom of indigenous peoples.  The ethical basis of
>      permaculture rests upon care of the earth--maintaining a
>      system in which all life can thrive.  This includes human
>      access to resources and provisions, but not the accumulation
>      of wealth, power, or land beyond their needs.
> 
> =============================================================
>                CHARACTERISTICS OF PERMACULTURE (*) 
> =============================================================
> 
> *    Permaculture is one of the most holistic, integrated systems
>      analysis and design methodologies found in the world.
> 
> *    Permaculture can be applied to create productive ecosystems
>      from the human-use standpoint or to help degraded
>      ecosystems recover health and wildness.  Permaculture can be 
>      applied in any ecosystem no matter how degraded. 
> 
> *    Permaculture values and validates traditional knowledge and
>      experience.  Permaculture incorporates sustainable
>      agriculture practices and land management techniques and
>      strategies from around the world.  Permaculture is a bridge
>      between traditional cultures and emergent earth-tuned
>      cultures.
> 
> *    Permaculture promotes organic agriculture which does not use
>      pesticides to pollute the environment.
> 
> *    Permaculture aims to maximize symbiotic and synergistic
>      relationships between site components.
> 
> *    Permaculture is urban planning as well as rural land design.
> 
> *    Permaculture design is site specific, client specific, and
>      culture specific.
> 
> (*)  Source:   Pilarski, Michael (ed.)  1994.  Restoration Forestry.  
>                Kivaki Press, Durango, CO.  p. 450.               
>  
> ==============================================================    
>            THE PRACTICAL APPLICATION of PERMACULTURE  
> ==============================================================
> 
> Permaculture is not limited to just plant and animal agriculture,
> but also includes community planning and development, use of
> appropriate technologies (coupled with an adjustment of life-
> style), and adoption of concepts and philosophies that are both
> earth-based and people-centered, such as bio-regionalism. 
> 
> Many of the appropriate technologies advocated by permaculturists
> are well-known.  Among these are solar and wind power, composting
> toilets, solar greenhouses, energy efficient housing, and solar
> food cooking and drying.  
> 
> Due to the inherent sustainability of perennial cropping systems,
> permaculture places a heavy emphasis on tree crops.  Systems that
> integrate annual and perennial crops such as alleycropping and
> agroforestry   take advantage of "the edge effect", increase
> biological diversity, and offer other characteristics missing in
> monoculture systems.  Thus, multicropping systems that
> blend woody perennials and annuals hold promise as viable
> techniques for large-scale farming.  Ecological methods of
> production for any specific crop or farming system are central to
> permaculture as well as sustainable agriculture in general.
> 
> Since permaculture is not a production system, per se, but rather
> a land use planning philosophy, it is not limited to a specific
> method of production.  Furthermore, as permaculture principles
> may be adapted to farms or villages worldwide, it is site
> specific and therefore amenable to locally adapted techniques of
> production.  
> 
> As an example, standard organic farming and gardening techniques
> utilizing cover crops, green manures, crop rotation, and mulches
> are emphasized in permacultural systems.  Yet, the use of
> the Keyline chisel plow, rotational grazing, the Aerway implement
> in no-till farming, and a whole number of other techniques are
> adaptable to farms working within a permacultural framework. 
> The decision as to which "system" is employed is site-specific
> and management dependent.
> 
> Farming systems and techniques commonly associated with
> permaculture include rotational grazing, agroforestry, swales,
> contour plantings, the Keyline method (soil and water
> management), hedgerows and windbreaks, and integrated farming
> systems such as aquaculture, intercropping, and polyculture.  
> 
> Gardening and recycling methods common to permaculture include
> edible landscaping, keyhole gardening, companion planting,
> trellising, sheet mulching, chicken tractors, solar greenhouses,
> spiral herb gardens, swales, and vermicomposting.   
> 
> Water collection, management, and re-use systems like Keyline,
> greywater, rain catchment, constructed wetlands, aquaponics (the
> integration of hydroponics with recirculating aquaculture),
> and solar aquatic ponds (also known as Living Machines) play an
> important role in permaculture designs.  
> 
> ==============================================================
>                   PERMACULTURE RESOURCES 
> ==============================================================
> 
> The two basic sources of information on permaculture are
> permaculture design courses and permaculture literature. 
> 
> The Permaculture Design Course is the primary vehicle for
> transfer of permaculture expertise.  The standard course is
> 72-hours in length and lasts two weeks.  Graduates are
> issued a permaculture design certificate and are entitled to use
> "Permaculture" in the pursuit of livelihood and for educational
> purposes. 
> 
> The permaculture literature is a rich source of information on a 
> wide range of topics dealing with land use, plant and animal
> agriculture, water management, appropriate technology,
> energy-efficient and toxic-free housing, and community design.   
> 
>          *******************************************
>          Permaculture Resources in the United States
>          ********************************************
> 
> THE PERMACULTURE ACTIVIST 
> Box 1209
> Black Mountain, NC  28711
> (704) 683-4946
> Editor: Peter Bane
> Cost:  $16, quarterly
> 
>      THE PERMACULTURE ACTIVIST is the leading periodical for
>      North American permaculture.  It publishes articles
>      on permaculture, edible landscaping, bioregionalism,
>      aquaculture, etc, and provides a current listing of
>      upcoming permaculture design courses.  It serves as an
>      important networking tool in the U.S., Canada, and
>      Central America.  Back issues are available for sale.   
> 
> THE INTERNATIONAL PERMACULTURE SOLUTIONS JOURNAL (TIPS) 
> Yankee Permaculture, Elfin Permaculture, and Forest Ecosystem
> Rescue Network (FERN)
> P.O. Box 672
> Dahlonega, GA 30533-0672
> Editor:  Dan Hemenway
> Cost: $27.50 for four issues
> 
>      THE INTERNATIONAL PERMACULTURE SOLUTIONS JOURNAL (TIPS) is
>      published on an irregular basis, but is a rich source of
>      information.  Prior to TIPS, Yankee Permaculture put out a
>      fantastic yearbook called THE INTERNATIONAL PERMACULTURE
>      SPECIES YEARBOOK (TIPSY).  The TIPSY series is a goldmine
>      of permaculture information; much of the information is
>      still quite useful.  FERN publishes a permaculture
>      newsletter called ROBIN that deals with forest issues. 
>      Yankee Permaculture also publishes THE RESOURCES OF 
>      INTERNATIONAL PERMACULTURE - TRIP.  Volume 5 of TRIP,
>      published in 1993, is a 68-page issue that contains 1,540
>      listings of groups working in permaculture, sustainable
>      food systems, and tree-based agriculture.
> 
> RESTORATION FORESTRY
> Friends of the Trees
> P. O. Box 4469
> Bellingham, WA   98227
> (206) 738-4972
> Editor:  Michael Pilarski
> 
>      RESTORATION FORESTRY: AN INTERNATIONAL GUIDE TO SUSTAINABLE
>      FORESTRY PRACTICES (1994) is a 525-page guide to resources 
>      in restoration forestry.  It contains over 50 review articles, 
>      780 organizations, 230 journals/periodicals, 800 books, 100 
>      restoration forestry projects underway, and 100 directories on 
>      topics relating to restoration forestry, forest ecology, tree 
>      seedlings, bioregionalism, and permaculture.  It is a massive 
>      addition to tree-based agricultural literature.  Cost is $27, 
>      plus $4 handling.
>       
>      Other publications from Friends of the Trees include the
>      INTERNATIONAL GREEN FRONT REPORT (1988, $7.00);
>      KIWIFRUIT ENTHUSIASTS JOURNAL (Vol. 6, $17.20); and THIRD 
>      WORLD RESOURCE GUIDE (1993, $5.00) and the WEST COAST 
>      PERMACULTURE NEWS & GOSSIP NEWSLETTER. 
> 
>      Travelers Earth Repair Network (TERN) is a database
>      maintained by Friends of the Trees containing over 2,500
>      permaculture contacts in 100-plus countries.  The aim is to 
>      link travelers with individuals and organizations
>      involved in sustainable agriculture, forestry, permaculture,
>      and ecological restoration.  There is a $50 fee to access
>      the TERN database.  Hosts are listed free of charge. 
> 
> PERMACULTURE DRYLANDS JOURNAL 
> Permaculture Drylands Institute
> P.O. Box 156
> Santa Fe, NM  87504-0156
> (505) 983-0663
> Cost: $25, 3 issues per year 
> 
>      PERMACULTURE DRYLANDS JOURNAL (formerly SUSTAINABLE LIVING
>      IN DRYLANDS) is published in April, August, and
>      December by the Permaculture Drylands Education and Research
>      Institute.  It focuses on permaculture concepts and designs
>      for arid lands, with a heavy focus on New Mexico and
>      Arizona.  PDJ has published articles on straw bale
>      buildings, solar box cookers, dryland farming, and much
>      more; back issues are available.  PDI offers a regular
>      series of Permaculture Design Courses.   
> 
> EARTHWORD JOURNAL 
> Eos Institute                 
> 580 Broadway, Suite 200
> Laguna Beach, CA  92651
> (714) 497-1896
> Cost: $20, 4 issues 
> 
>      EARTHWORD JOURNAL is a glossy permaculture magazine published 
>      collaboratively by Eos Institute and the Permaculture Institute 
>      of Southern California.  It explores the ecological interface 
>      between urban and rural communities and is geared to the 
>      professional designer, architect, and land-use planner.  Issue 
>      No. 6 was published in January 1996.
> 
> TEMPERATE BAMBOO QUARTERLY 
> Earth Advocates Research Facility
> 30 Myers Road
> Summertown, TN  38483 
> (615) 964-4151
> Cost:  $24, quarterly 
> 
>      TEMPERATE BAMBOO QUARTERLY is a quarterly publication from
>      Earth Advocates, a permaculture team run by Sue and Adam
>      Turtle.  It focuses on the bamboo plant which has unique, 
>      multi-purpose uses.  They also operate a nursery with dozens
>      of bamboo species.      
> 
> Permaculture Resources
> P.O. Box 65
> 56 Farmersville Rd
> Califon, N.J.  07830
> (800) 832-6285
> 
>      Educational publisher and distributor of permaculture
>      resources and publications.
> 
> agAccess 
> P.O. Box 2008
> Davis, CA  95616
> (916) 756-7177
>  
>      agAccess, primarily a mailorder bookstore but also a 
>      publishing company and for-profit information service, 
>      carries one of the largest selections of agricultural 
>      literature in North America.  They specialize in
>      sustainable agriculture and related resources.
> 
>              ***********************************
>              Permaculture Resources in Australia
>              ***********************************
> 
> PERMACULTURE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL 
> Permaculture International Ltd.
> P.O. Box PG6039 
> South Lismore, NSW  2480
> Australia
> Phone:  (066) 220 020
> International:  (066) 220 579
> Cost: U.S. $24, quarterly 
> **Available in the U.S. through THE PERMACULTURE ACTIVIST** 
> 
>      PIJ serves as the leading periodical for permaculture
>      worldwide.  It contains articles, book reviews, and news of
>      permacultural events around the world.  It serves as an
>      important networking tool.  Back issues to the early 1980s
>      are available for sale.
> 
> THE PERMACULTURE EDGE 
> Permaculture Nambour, Inc. 
> P.O. Box 148 
> Inglewood 6050 
> Western Australia
> Cost: U.S. $20, quarterly 
> **Available in the U.S. through THE PERMACULTURE ACTIVIST**
>      
>      THE PERMACULTURE EDGE aims to report activities that are seen 
>      to be at the cutting edge of permaculture developments around 
>      the world.  The "permaculture edge" refers to the "edge effect" 
>      found at the boundaries of two ecological systems where there is 
>      more synergism, biological activity, and variations in the 
>      microenvironment and which can be used to increase yields in 
>      designed systems.  It also points to permaculture ideas as being 
>      "at the edge" of a change in the push towards a sustainable
>      future. 
> 
> International Permaculture Institute
> P.O. Box 1
> Tyalgum, NSW  2484
> Australia
> Phone:  (066) 793 442
> 
>      The International Permaculture Institute in Tyalgum,
>      Australia, serves as the international coordinating
>      organization for permaculture activities such as
>      permaculture design accreditation.
> 
>            ***************************************
>            Permaculture Resources Around the World
>            ***************************************
> 
> PERMACULTURE MAGAZINE UK: ECOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS FOR EVERYDAY LIFE
> Permanent Publications
> Hyden House Limited
> Little Hyden Lane
> Clandfield, Hampshire  PO8 ORU
> England
> Cost:  U.S. $24, quarterly
> **Available in the U.S. through THE PERMACULTURE ACTIVIST**
> 
>       A quarterly journal published in cooperation with the
>      Permaculture Association of Great Britain.  It contains
>      articles, book reviews, and solutions from Britain and
>      Europe.  A good source for temperate agroforestry species
>      and permaculture design projects.   
> 
> GROUND COVER 
> Permaculture Association of Zimbabwe
> Box CY 301
> Causeway, Harare 
> Zimbabwe
> Telephone/Fax:  (+4) 726911
> Cost:  U.S. $30, per year
> 
> PERMACULTURE INDIA NEWSLETTER and ECOLOGICAL VISIONS 
> Earthcare Books c/o Classic Books
> 10 Middleton St.
> Calcutta  700 071 
> India
> 
> ==============================================================
>                    Books on Permaculture
> ==============================================================
> 
> INTRODUCTION TO PERMACULTURE by Bill Mollison and Reny Mia Slay. 
> 1991.  Tagari Publishers, Tyalgum, Australia.  198 p. 
> 
> PERMACULTURE ONE: A PERENNIAL AGRICULTURE FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENTS,
> 3rd ed (Reprint of 1978 ed) by Bill Mollison and David Holmgren. 
> 1987.  Tagari Publishers, Tyalgum, New South Wales, Australia. 
> 127 p. 
> 
> PERMACULTURE TWO: A PRACTICAL DESIGN FOR TOWN AND COUNTRY IN
> PERMANENT AGRICULTURE by Bill Mollison.  1979.  Tagari Press,
> Stanley, Australia.  150 p. 
> 
> PERMACULTURE: A DESIGNER'S MANUAL by Bill Mollison.  1988. 
> Tagari Publications, Tyalgum, Australia.  576 p.   
> 
> THE BEST OF PERMACULTURE by Max O. Lindegger and Robert Tap. 
> 1986.  Nascimanere Publishers, Nambour, Australia.  136 p. 
> 
> THE PERMACULTURE WAY: PRACTICAL WAYS TO CREATE A SELF-SUSTAINING
> WORLD by Graham Bell.  1992.  Thorsons, London.  239 p. 
> 
> THE PERMACULTURE GARDEN by Graham Bell.  1994.  Thorsons, London. 
> 170 p.
> 
> URBAN PERMACULTURE by David Watkins.  1993.  Permanent
> Publications, U.K.  152 p. 
> 
> PERMACULTURE IN A NUTSHELL by Patrick Whitefield.  1993. 
> Permanent Publications, U.K.  75 p. 
> 
> EARTH USER'S GUIDE TO PERMACULTURE by Rosemary Morrow and Rob
> Allsop.  1994.  Kangaroo Press, Kenthurst, NSW Australia.  152 p.
> 
> GETTING STARTED IN PERMACULTURE by Ross and Jennifer Mars.  1995. 
> Candlelight Trust, Hovea, Western Australia.  60 p. 
> 
> ==============================================================
>       A FEW GOOD BOOKS for the PERMACULTURIST'S BOOKSHELF 
> ==============================================================
> 
> CORNUCOPIA: A SOURCE BOOK OF EDIBLE PLANTS by Stephen Facciola.
> 1990.  Kampong Publications, Vista, CA.  678 p. 
> 
> DESIGNING & MAINTAINING YOUR EDIBLE LANDSCAPE NATURALLY by Robert
> Kourick.  1986.  Metamorphic Press, Santa Rosa, CA.  370 p. 
> 
> TREE CROPS: A PERMANENT AGRICULTURE by J. Russell Smith.  1987. 
> Island Press, Washington, D.C.  408 p.  
> 
> THE PERMACULTURE BOOK OF FERMENT & HUMAN NUTRITION by Bill
> Mollison.  1993.  Tagari Publications, Tyalgum, Australia.  
> 288 p.  
> 
> ==============================================================
>         ELECTRONIC SOURCES OF PERMACULTURE INFORMATION 
> ===============================================================
> 
> 1.   Permaculture-Mg Internet Discussion List in the United
>      States
>      
>      permaculture-mg at amani.ces.ncsu.edu
> 
>      To subscribe, send email to "almanac at amani.ces.ncsu.edu" 
>      with SUBSCRIBE PERMACULTURE-MG YOUR NAME in the body of
>      email
> 
> 2.   Permaculture Discussion List in Western Australia
>      
>      perma at eepo.com.au
> 
>      To subscribe, send email to "listserv at eepo.com.au"
>      with SUBSCRIBE PERMA YOUR NAME in the body of email
> 
> 3.   Organic Gardening & Permaculture Information 
>      
>      http://sunsite.unc.edu/london/The_Sustainable_Farmstead.html
>      http://sunsite.unc.edu/london/permaculture.html
>      Email: london at sunsite.unc.edu
> 
> 4.   Permaculture Guide at Communications for a Sustainable
>      Future
> 
>      http://csf.colorado.edu:8080/
> 
> 5.   Permaculture International Journal (Australia)
> 
>      http://nornet.nor.com.au/environment/perma/
>      Email:  pcjournal at peg.apc.org
> 
> 6.   International Permaculture Institute (Australia)
> 
>      Email:  perminst at peg.apc.org
> 
> 7.   Permaculture Global Assistance Network (Australia)
> 
>      http://www.peg.apc.org/~pgan
> 
> 8.   Permaculture in Western Australia
> 
>      http://www.eepo.com.au/perma/
> 
> 9.   Permaculture in South Australia - "What's Happening in
>      Permaculture"
> 
>      http://dove.mtx.net.au/%7Esteveo/wotsnu.html
> 
> 10.  Correspondence Course on Permaculture (Australia)
> 
>      http://www.qldnet.com.au/acs
> 
> 11.  Permaculture Visions International's Correspondence Course
>      (Australia)
> 
>      Email:  askpv at ozemail.com.au 
> 
> 12.  British Permaculture Magazine/Permanent Publications Web
>      Site
> 
>      http://www.uea.ac.uk/~e415/home.html
> 
> 13.  PermaWeb in Great Britain
> 
>      http://www.sysmag.com/permaweb
> 
> 14.  Permaculture Association (Britain)
> 
>      http://www.sysmag.com/permaweb/groups/pcbritain
> 
> 15.  Bay Area Permaculture Group 
> 
>      http://www.nbn.com/people/bapg/
> 
> 16.  Permaculture Institute of Northern California
>      
>      http://www.nbn.com/people/bapg/pinc.html
> 
> 17.  Friends of the Trees 
>      
>      http://www.pacificrim.net/~trees/
> 
> 18.  Cross Timbers Permaculture Institute in Texas
>      
>      http://csf.colorado.edu/perma/ctpi/cross_t.htm
>      Email:  7539.1353 at compuserve.com
> 
> 19.  Central Rocky Mountain Permaculture Institute
> 
>      Email:  103070.2354 at compuserve.com
> 
> 20.  Permaculture on "Mind*Body*Spirit" (South Africa)
> 
>      http://www.pix.za/mbs/body/perma.htm
> 
> 21.  Permaculture on Carmela's Home Page 
> 
>      http://www.ozoline.com.au/permaculture/index.html
> 
> 22.  Plants for a Future On-Line
> 
>      http://www.liv.ac.uk/~rmorris/pfaf/index.html
> 
> 23.  Institute for Bioregional Studies
> 
>      http://www.cycor.ca/IBS/
> 
> 24.  EcoVillage Information Service
> 
>      http://www.gaia.org/
> 
> 25.  Crystal Waters Permaculture Village
> 
>      http://www.gaia.org/crystalwaters/
> 
> 26.  The Farm EcoVillage Training Center
> 
>      http://www.gaia.org/farm/
> 
> 27.  Intentional Communities on the Web
>      http://www.well.com/user/cmty/iclist.html
> 
> 28.  Findhorn 
> 
>      http://www.gaia.org/findhorn/
> 
> 29.  Arcosanti  
> 
>      http://www.arcosanti.org
> 
> 30.  Auroville 
> 
>      http://www.webcom.com/~miraura/aa/av/av.html
>     
> 31.  Permaculture FAQ on the Web  
> 
>      Hyper-Text
>           http://csf.colorado.edu/perma/faq.html 
> 
>      Ascii-Text 
>           http://sunsite.unc.edu/london/permaculture/faq.v1.1 
> 
> ==============================================================
>                          - * - 
> ==============================================================
> 
> The Permaculture FAQ was compiled by Steve Diver(*) for the 
> permaculture-mg mailing list  
>  
> Send updates, comments, and corrections to: 
>          steved at ncatfyv.uark.edu
>                    or 
>          permaculture-mg at amani.ces.ncsu.edu
> 
> (*) Permaculture Design Course graduate, Michaela
>     Farm/Sisters of St. Francis, Oldenburg, Indiana
> 
> =============================================================
>                       - * - 
> =============================================================



More information about the permaculture mailing list