[NAFEX] What are smaller shagbark hickory tree cultivars?

Steven Covacci filtertitle at aol.com
Thu Feb 24 14:27:33 EST 2011


Dear group:


What are cultivars of shagbark hickory (not hican or shellbark) that form a comparatively smaller tree?


Wes let me know about a smaller pecan cv. 'Lucas' appropriate for the northeastern region.  I think that a shagbark will end up being, however, smaller then a smaller pecan; but if I had room, I'd go for the pecan.  I'll just graft a pecan limb later on.


Steve




-----Original Message-----
From: nafex-request <nafex-request at lists.ibiblio.org>
To: nafex <nafex at lists.ibiblio.org>
Sent: Mon, Feb 7, 2011 10:28 am
Subject: nafex Digest, Vol 97, Issue 11


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Today's Topics:

   1. Re: Controlled burns (probably off topic) (Geoffrey Tolle)
   2. Citrus Question and Medlar Question (Spidra Webster)
   3. Re: Citrus Question and Medlar Question (Michele Stanton)
   4. Re: Citrus Question and Medlar Question (Spidra Webster)
   5. Re: Citrus Question and Medlar Question (Hector Black)
   6. question about heartnuts.. (Amelia Hayner)
   7. Re: Time for list message footer update...filtering files
      (Scott Weber and Muffy Barrett)
   8. Medlar Question (Michele Stanton)
   9. Re: Citrus Question and Medlar Question (Richard Wagner)
  10. Re: Time for list message footer update...filtering files
      (Mark Angermayer)
  11. orchard+pigs+chickens (Leslie Moyer)
  12. Keeping the NAFEX list on topic. (Lawrence F. London, Jr.)
  13. Chocolate is the new super fruit, claim Hershey scientists
      (mIEKAL aND)
  14. Re: Time for list message footer update...filtering files
      (Amelia Hayner)
  15. Re: orchard+pigs+chickens (Amelia Hayner)
  16. Re: Chocolate is the new super fruit,	claim Hershey
      scientists [OT] (Alex Jokela)
  17. The apple forests of Almaty (Douglas Woodard)
  18. Re: The apple forests of Almaty (mIEKAL aND)
  19. Re: Keeping the NAFEX list on topic. (Mark Angermayer)
  20. Re: orchard+pigs+chickens (Road's End Farm)
  21. Apple collecting in Turkey in 1999, Malus orientalis,	disease
      resistance (Douglas Woodard)
  22. Identifying a pear (Deb S)
  23. Re: question about heartnuts.. (mIEKAL aND)
  24. Re: Identifying a pear (Claude Jolicoeur)
  25. Re: orchard+pigs+chickens (william Eggers)
  26. Re: Identifying a pear (Amelia Hayner)
  27. SweeTango Apple Court Case (Alex C. Jokela)
  28. Re: Identifying a pear (Deb S)
  29. Re: pear pie (Road's End Farm)
  30. Re: The apple forests of Almaty (Richard Wagner)


----------------------------------------------------------------------

Message: 1
Date: Sun, 06 Feb 2011 19:03:11 -0500
From: Geoffrey Tolle <Gtolle0709 at wowway.com>
To: North American Fruit Explorers <nafex at lists.ibiblio.org>
Subject: Re: [NAFEX] Controlled burns (probably off topic)
Message-ID: <4D4F36BF.7020206 at wowway.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1; format=flowed

I'd also like to point out that biochar is formed by the incomplete 
combustion of organic matter. While the periodic prairie burns do 
relatively completely burn the surface "grass", the root masses, 
protected as they are by soil and other organic matter will tend to 
incompletely combust. Over the millenia, even a little biochar after 
each burn will build up.

                                     Geoffrey Tolle

On 2/6/11 4:14 AM, Douglas Woodard wrote:
> The consensus on the black soils of the U.S. midwest is that they were 
> formed by the massive root systems of (especially tallgrass) prairie 
> and savanna grasses and other plants, and the residue of thousands of 
> years of the seasonal growth and decay of the roots of these plant 
> communities, which are maintained by fire.
>
> The fire is encouraged by seasonal dryness, and by cyclical droughts 
> every few decades, which also kill trees.
>
> Such grasses are adept at drawing stored nutrients into the roots for 
> the dormant season leaving mostly cellulose above ground, to minimize 
> the loss from burning.
>
> [Deletions]
>
> Doug Woodard
> St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada
>


------------------------------

Message: 2
Date: Sun, 6 Feb 2011 16:25:15 -0800
From: Spidra Webster <spidra at gmail.com>
To: North American Fruit Explorers <nafex at lists.ibiblio.org>
Subject: [NAFEX] Citrus Question and Medlar Question
Message-ID:
	<AANLkTinH0GDMqvOav1mFe1zrQkL8F2t5pqB018O6Y_dP at mail.gmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1

Hi,

My parents had 2 large lemon trees in a shaded part of their yard.
Remarkably, they fruited despite the lack of sun. However, they had large
rinds and semi-dry pulp inside. I checked to see if the rootstocks had
overtaken the grafted varieties but that was not the case. I didn't see any
scale on the tree.

My mom had my dad cut the trees down and I bought her a Meyer Lemon for her
birthday. However, I'm worried about whether what was wrong with the trees
was soil-borne. Is it likely it was something caused by insects in the
blossom? Or are there soil-borne diseases we need to be worried about?
Because my parents will likely want to plant citrus in that same spot.


Unexpectedly got ahold of some medlar scionwood. Unfortunately, I have no
pear, medlar or quince rootstock. I was curious - is apple rootstock was
compatible with medlar?

Thanks,

Megan Lynch

http://www.meganlynch.net


------------------------------

Message: 3
Date: Sun, 6 Feb 2011 19:52:49 -0500
From: "Michele Stanton" <6ducks at gmail.com>
To: "'North American Fruit Explorers'" <nafex at lists.ibiblio.org>
Subject: Re: [NAFEX] Citrus Question and Medlar Question
Message-ID: <000601cbc661$587dfc10$0979f430$@com>
Content-Type: text/plain;	charset="us-ascii"

Megan,
Is it possible they had a ponderosa lemon tree?  These lemons are larger
than normal, and have very thick rinds.
As to the dryness of the fruit, fruits can dry out if they are left too long
on the tree.  Some citrus hold well for a fairly long time, while others
have a short harvest window.
Michele in Ohio
..where my Meyer lemons are ripe indoors...


-----Original Message-----
From: nafex-bounces at lists.ibiblio.org
[mailto:nafex-bounces at lists.ibiblio.org] On Behalf Of Spidra Webster
Sent: Sunday, February 06, 2011 7:25 PM
To: North American Fruit Explorers
Subject: [NAFEX] Citrus Question and Medlar Question

Hi,

My parents had 2 large lemon trees in a shaded part of their yard.
Remarkably, they fruited despite the lack of sun. However, they had large
rinds and semi-dry pulp inside. I checked to see if the rootstocks had
overtaken the grafted varieties but that was not the case. I didn't see any
scale on the tree.

My mom had my dad cut the trees down and I bought her a Meyer Lemon for her
birthday. However, I'm worried about whether what was wrong with the trees
was soil-borne. Is it likely it was something caused by insects in the
blossom? Or are there soil-borne diseases we need to be worried about?
Because my parents will likely want to plant citrus in that same spot.


Unexpectedly got ahold of some medlar scionwood. Unfortunately, I have no
pear, medlar or quince rootstock. I was curious - is apple rootstock was
compatible with medlar?

Thanks,

Megan Lynch

http://www.meganlynch.net
__________________
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------------------------------

Message: 4
Date: Sun, 6 Feb 2011 17:04:24 -0800
From: Spidra Webster <spidra at gmail.com>
To: North American Fruit Explorers <nafex at lists.ibiblio.org>
Subject: Re: [NAFEX] Citrus Question and Medlar Question
Message-ID:
	<AANLkTimJ-WMk5Dw5S5Tk48daFRqThJyWEGyZ-iFxd39f at mail.gmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1

It's a possibility, Michele. My parents didn't keep the tags and wouldn't
have known their way around lemon varieties when picking them out. The
lemons could be fairly misshapen, which is what led me to think it could be
something attacking at the blossom stage.

M

On Sun, Feb 6, 2011 at 4:52 PM, Michele Stanton <6ducks at gmail.com> wrote:

> Megan,
> Is it possible they had a ponderosa lemon tree?  These lemons are larger
> than normal, and have very thick rinds.
> As to the dryness of the fruit, fruits can dry out if they are left too
> long
> on the tree.  Some citrus hold well for a fairly long time, while others
> have a short harvest window.
> Michele in Ohio
> ..where my Meyer lemons are ripe indoors...


------------------------------

Message: 5
Date: Sun, 6 Feb 2011 19:43:47 -0600
From: "Hector Black" <hblack1925 at fastmail.fm>
To: "North American Fruit Explorers" <nafex at lists.ibiblio.org>
Subject: Re: [NAFEX] Citrus Question and Medlar Question
Message-ID: <661E70ED96504361A2BE2AB2643E590B at hectordesktop>
Content-Type: text/plain; format=flowed; charset="iso-8859-1";
	reply-type=original

Hi Megan,  The medlar is closely related to the Loquat.  I've never tried, 
but a graft might work.  We've used pear and quince, but my suspicion would 
be that apple is too far removed genetically.

     I've also had citrus dry out if kept too long on the tree.  Ours are 
all in pots of course and moved indoors for the winter.
   Hector Black, zone 6 middle tn
----- Original Message ----- 
From: "Spidra Webster" <spidra at gmail.com>
To: "North American Fruit Explorers" <nafex at lists.ibiblio.org>
Sent: Sunday, February 06, 2011 6:25 PM
Subject: [NAFEX] Citrus Question and Medlar Question


> Hi,
>
> My parents had 2 large lemon trees in a shaded part of their yard.
> Remarkably, they fruited despite the lack of sun. However, they had large
> rinds and semi-dry pulp inside. I checked to see if the rootstocks had
> overtaken the grafted varieties but that was not the case. I didn't see 
> any
> scale on the tree.
>
> My mom had my dad cut the trees down and I bought her a Meyer Lemon for 
> her
> birthday. However, I'm worried about whether what was wrong with the trees
> was soil-borne. Is it likely it was something caused by insects in the
> blossom? Or are there soil-borne diseases we need to be worried about?
> Because my parents will likely want to plant citrus in that same spot.
>
>
> Unexpectedly got ahold of some medlar scionwood. Unfortunately, I have no
> pear, medlar or quince rootstock. I was curious - is apple rootstock was
> compatible with medlar?
>
> Thanks,
>
> Megan Lynch
>
> http://www.meganlynch.net
> __________________
> nafex mailing list
> nafex at lists.ibiblio.org
> Subscribe, unsubscribe, change your user configuration or find out more 
> about the list here:
> http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/nafex
> Reproduction of list messages or archives is not allowed. This includes 
> distribution on other email lists, groups or web forums and reproduction 
> on blogs, web sites or any other web resource. Permission to reproduce is 
> NEVER granted, so don't claim you have permission!
> NAFEX web site: http://www.nafex.org/
> 



------------------------------

Message: 6
Date: Sun, 6 Feb 2011 20:47:52 -0500
From: Amelia Hayner <abhayner at gmail.com>
To: nafex at lists.ibiblio.org
Subject: [NAFEX] question about heartnuts..
Message-ID:
	<AANLkTi=q62-Ld-pP-yw=OfntaQfpZEknG-X=W-gN504a at mail.gmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1

are they viable here in coastal plains of NC?
do they require pollination? We have several large pecan trees-- I read that
heartnuts grow quickly and have a spreading habit.
I have a place for a tree like that! A spot where we could use some shade.
any opinions welcome, here.
thanks!
Amy
(we want to keep our squirrels happy)


------------------------------

Message: 7
Date: Mon, 7 Feb 2011 03:31:21 GMT
From: "Scott Weber and Muffy Barrett" <bluestem_farm at juno.com>
To: nafex at lists.ibiblio.org
Subject: Re: [NAFEX] Time for list message footer update...filtering
	files
Message-ID: <20110206.213121.24831.0 at webmail08.dca.untd.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=windows-1252

Mark,You aren't the only one on dial up.  We've refused (so far anyway) to buy 
into the arms race that is internet connection.  Downloading any attachment is 
difficult and time consuming.  If the list starts coming with files attached and 
Pomona remains on line only, NAFEX may lose all relevance to me.  It certainly 
won't be user friendly in this house.Muffy Barrett

---------- Original Message ----------
 if I'm the only
one on dialup, I don't expect the list to tailor to my needs.

Mark
KS


____________________________________________________________
Kill Your Wrinkles
Mom Reveals Shocking $5 method for erasing wrinkles&#46;&#46;&#46;Doctors hate 
her
http://thirdpartyoffers.juno.com/TGL3131/4d4f67dfda4541a079dst04duc

------------------------------

Message: 8
Date: Sun, 6 Feb 2011 22:36:46 -0500
From: "Michele Stanton" <6ducks at gmail.com>
To: "'North American Fruit Explorers'" <nafex at lists.ibiblio.org>
Subject: [NAFEX] Medlar Question
Message-ID: <000001cbc678$3f84e400$be8eac00$@com>
Content-Type: text/plain;	charset="us-ascii"

The Book 'Hawthornes and Medlars' By James B. Phipps (Timber Press, 2003)
says that medlars can be graft onto Crataegus rootstocks (hawthorns) and
that
C. monogya and c. phaenopyrum are commonly used.

Good luck!

Michele



------------------------------

Message: 9
Date: Sun, 6 Feb 2011 22:11:21 -0600
From: "Richard Wagner" <rewagner at centurytel.net>
To: "North American Fruit Explorers" <nafex at lists.ibiblio.org>
Subject: Re: [NAFEX] Citrus Question and Medlar Question
Message-ID: <D1F4A91FD2A44658AF08E37CC5DCABF5 at RichardPC>
Content-Type: text/plain; format=flowed; charset="iso-8859-1";
	reply-type=original

Ponderosa lemons are frequently somewhat misshaped. I believe they are 
actually a lemon x citron cross.

-----Original Message----- 
From: Spidra Webster
Sent: Sunday, February 06, 2011 7:04 PM
To: North American Fruit Explorers
Subject: Re: [NAFEX] Citrus Question and Medlar Question

It's a possibility, Michele. My parents didn't keep the tags and wouldn't
have known their way around lemon varieties when picking them out. The
lemons could be fairly misshapen, which is what led me to think it could be
something attacking at the blossom stage.

M

On Sun, Feb 6, 2011 at 4:52 PM, Michele Stanton <6ducks at gmail.com> wrote:

> Megan,
> Is it possible they had a ponderosa lemon tree?  These lemons are larger
> than normal, and have very thick rinds.
> As to the dryness of the fruit, fruits can dry out if they are left too
> long
> on the tree.  Some citrus hold well for a fairly long time, while others
> have a short harvest window.
> Michele in Ohio
> ..where my Meyer lemons are ripe indoors...
__________________
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Subscribe, unsubscribe, change your user configuration or find out more 
about the list here:
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Reproduction of list messages or archives is not allowed. This includes 
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blogs, web sites or any other web resource. Permission to reproduce is NEVER 
granted, so don't claim you have permission!
NAFEX web site: http://www.nafex.org/ 



------------------------------

Message: 10
Date: Sun, 6 Feb 2011 22:31:43 -0600
From: "Mark Angermayer" <hangermayer at isp.com>
To: "North American Fruit Explorers" <nafex at lists.ibiblio.org>
Subject: Re: [NAFEX] Time for list message footer update...filtering
	files
Message-ID: <007e01cbc67f$ee4f1ee0$f729f504 at computer5>
Content-Type: text/plain;	charset="iso-8859-1"

"Mark,You aren't the only one on dial up.  We've refused (so far anyway) to
buy into the arms race that is internet connection. "

Muffy, my thoughts as well.  We also don't have cable, or a cell phone (Well
we do have a cheap prepaid cell phone that probably averages about $4/month
usage).  It's not unusual for many people to spend upwards of $100/month on
cable/cell/high speed internet.  In my way of thinking, that will buy a lot
of trees.

Mark
KS


----- Original Message ----- 
From: "Scott Weber and Muffy Barrett" <>
To: <nafex at lists.ibiblio.org>
Sent: Sunday, February 06, 2011 9:31 PM
Subject: Re: [NAFEX] Time for list message footer update...filtering files


> Mark,You aren't the only one on dial up.  We've refused (so far anyway) to
buy into the arms race that is internet connection.  Downloading any
attachment is difficult and time consuming.  If the list starts coming with
files attached and Pomona remains on line only, NAFEX may lose all relevance
to me.  It certainly won't be user friendly in this house.Muffy Barrett
>
> ---------- Original Message ----------
>  if I'm the only
> one on dialup, I don't expect the list to tailor to my needs.
>
> Mark
> KS
>
>
> ____________________________________________________________
> Kill Your Wrinkles
> Mom Reveals Shocking $5 method for erasing wrinkles&#46;&#46;&#46;Doctors
hate her
> http://thirdpartyoffers.juno.com/TGL3131/4d4f67dfda4541a079dst04duc
> __________________
> nafex mailing list
> nafex at lists.ibiblio.org
> Subscribe, unsubscribe, change your user configuration or find out more
about the list here:
> http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/nafex
> Reproduction of list messages or archives is not allowed. This includes
distribution on other email lists, groups or web forums and reproduction on
blogs, web sites or any other web resource. Permission to reproduce is NEVER
granted, so don't claim you have permission!
> NAFEX web site: http://www.nafex.org/



------------------------------

Message: 11
Date: Mon, 7 Feb 2011 01:34:08 -0600
From: Leslie Moyer <unschooler at lrec.org>
To: North American Fruit Explorers <nafex at lists.ibiblio.org>
Subject: [NAFEX] orchard+pigs+chickens
Message-ID: <79DB1916-F6DE-4358-9BF2-A0CB445DEF94 at lrec.org>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii

I'm looking for specific information about using pigs and chickens (and/or 
ducks, turkeys, guineas, etc.) for orchard floor management (controlling 
vegetation under trees) and insect control in an organic orchard.  Does anyone 
know of resources or people they could point me toward where I might learn more 
about that?  I read of an organic orchard co-op in Wisconsin where they're doing 
that and I've found and heard brief mentions here and there of other instances 
that are all void of details, but I need some more specific "how-to" information 
about replicating it.  I even read about the U. of MI doing research in this 
field, but I still can't track down any details.

Thanks for any leads,

-Leslie / NE Oklahoma

------------------------------

Message: 12
Date: Mon, 07 Feb 2011 07:10:49 -0500
From: "Lawrence F. London, Jr." <lflj at bellsouth.net>
To: nafex at lists.ibiblio.org
Subject: [NAFEX] Keeping the NAFEX list on topic.
Message-ID: <4D4FE149.3030007 at bellsouth.net>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1; format=flowed


Nafex list subscribers:

I would like to end this thread on list management issues; I started it 
and we unfortunately lost a valued list subscriber because of that. 
Could we also eliminate all trivial chat and off topic messages,
i.e. take them to private email to help keep this forum strictly on 
topic as it has mostly been since it began, with a high signal to noise 
ratio.

Also, I was instructed to subscribe non NAFEX members to this list as 
well as bona fide members. So, those of you who are not in NAFEX should 
remember the purpose of this forum and respect the needs of those that 
are and are here with the intent of using the time they invest in list 
participation wisely. Trivial chit chat offers little or no appeal to 
must subscribers.

As for sending file attachments to this list and the load it imposes on 
subscribers with slow internet access:

1) I prefer allowing attachments up to 2 mb in size
2) If you are not a Nafex member and have access to dsl but turn it down
then I doubt you should be allowed any special consideration regarding 
attachments.
3) If you are a NAFEX member and have 56k dialup access and have a 
problem with attachments then please get in touch with me by private 
email at: lflj at bellsouth.net as I feel your needs deserve special 
consideration.
4) I hope soon to have a closed, non-public SMF webforum up and running 
for subscribers to this list only, to use specifically for upload and 
exchange of files attached to messages in threads, i.e. any size images, 
videos and various sorts of documents. I will announce this to the list 
once, as soon as it is ready for use. I hope to set this up at ibiblio 
(www.ibiblio.org/nafex/smf/nafex-forum) but it may have to be located 
elsewhere. Do I need permission from NAFEX to do this? Please reply to 
me privately about this (lflj at bellsouth.net).
5) I hope this will be my final admin message to this list; future ones 
will happen only in dire list emergencies.

Thanks very much for your help and feedback.

Lawrence London
Co-Admin NAFEX list
lflj at bellsouth.net



------------------------------

Message: 13
Date: Mon, 7 Feb 2011 07:17:12 -0600
From: mIEKAL aND <qazingulaza at gmail.com>
To: North American Fruit Explorers <nafex at lists.ibiblio.org>
Subject: [NAFEX] Chocolate is the new super fruit, claim Hershey
	scientists
Message-ID:
	<AANLkTim_Hk6HgRUACyf3eoWFXx2xj4DGskKQgMNF3hCH at mail.gmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=windows-1252

(if only I could figure out how to grow cacao as a container plant,
I've never been able to keep one alive for more than a couple years)

Chocolate is the new super fruit, claim Hershey scientists

http://www.nutraingredients.com/Research/Chocolate-is-the-new-super-fruit-claim-Hershey-scientists

By Jane Byrne, 07-Feb-2011


Cocoa powder and dark chocolate has equivalent polyphenol content and
greater antioxidant and flavanol content than various super fruits,
claims a new study by research scientists based at the Hershey Center
for Health and Nutrition.

Research suggests chocolate can deliver a bigger antioxidant payload
than some so-called super fruits
The authors, who published their findings in the Chemistry Central
Journal said that their results indicate that cacao seeds thus provide
nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient
composition and thus should be termed ?super fruit?.

The fruit pulp of the Theobroma cacao pod that surrounds its seeds can
be consumed; however the vast majority of people have only consumed
the seed-derived portion of cacao in the form of cocoa powder or
chocolate. So the goal of the study, said the Hershey scientists, was
to compare cocoa powder and chocolate, products representing the
commonly eaten portion of the cacao fruit, with powders and juices
from so-called ?Super Fruits?.

Cocoa powder and chocolate were compared with powders derived from
acai, blueberry, cranberry, and pomegranate, continued the authors, on
measures of antioxidant activity, as measured by oxygen radical
absorbance capacity (ORAC (?M TE/g)), total polyphenol content (TP
(mg/g)), and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g)).

(more online)


------------------------------

Message: 14
Date: Mon, 7 Feb 2011 08:30:56 -0500
From: Amelia Hayner <abhayner at gmail.com>
To: North American Fruit Explorers <nafex at lists.ibiblio.org>
Subject: Re: [NAFEX] Time for list message footer update...filtering
	files
Message-ID:
	<AANLkTimAC3GvL5f8-_An_tWQ053OMYmgx_p12S2YiG4n at mail.gmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1

I am thinking I might be the person that started this discussion, by sending
pix of my goats on old pickup trucks.
that was way OT, I am sorry--
I am used to lists like on Yahoo. I wish there were a place to store files,
easily, for folks to go and review if they wished.
Amy
clueless but well meaning
in NC

On Sun, Feb 6, 2011 at 10:31 PM, Scott Weber and Muffy Barrett <
bluestem_farm at juno.com> wrote:

> Mark,You aren't the only one on dial up.  We've refused (so far anyway) to
> buy into the arms race that is internet connection.  Downloading any
> attachment is difficult and time consuming.  If the list starts coming with
> files attached and Pomona remains on line only, NAFEX may lose all relevance
> to me.  It certainly won't be user friendly in this house.Muffy Barrett
>
> ---------- Original Message ----------
>  if I'm the only
> one on dialup, I don't expect the list to tailor to my needs.
>
> Mark
> KS
>
>
> ____________________________________________________________
> Kill Your Wrinkles
> Mom Reveals Shocking $5 method for erasing wrinkles&#46;&#46;&#46;Doctors
> hate her
> http://thirdpartyoffers.juno.com/TGL3131/4d4f67dfda4541a079dst04duc
> __________________
> nafex mailing list
> nafex at lists.ibiblio.org
> Subscribe, unsubscribe, change your user configuration or find out more
> about the list here:
> http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/nafex
> Reproduction of list messages or archives is not allowed. This includes
> distribution on other email lists, groups or web forums and reproduction on
> blogs, web sites or any other web resource. Permission to reproduce is NEVER
> granted, so don't claim you have permission!
> NAFEX web site: http://www.nafex.org/
>


------------------------------

Message: 15
Date: Mon, 7 Feb 2011 08:37:02 -0500
From: Amelia Hayner <abhayner at gmail.com>
To: North American Fruit Explorers <nafex at lists.ibiblio.org>
Subject: Re: [NAFEX] orchard+pigs+chickens
Message-ID:
	<AANLkTi=sm6D1TXPX-=R9r+1byr01AZwxKuAcD68KpGiR at mail.gmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1

hi!
I don't know about the whole list, but what I CAN tell you is... do NOT
believe anyone that tells you that sheep won't eat bark, like a goat. Yes,
they will. When the sap is rising, in the spring- they are right there..
waiting.
And the bad thing about turkeys, is that sometimes, occasionally, they want
to roost in inopportune places.
like the top of a fence post, or a weak branch. If you had a couple of
really fat pet turkeys, that are strictly ground-type birds, they should be
fine.
and pigs love to scratch their shoulders on trees. If you happen to see some
lucky pigs, in a natural setting- you will notice that all trees in the
enclosure are dead, or dying. Look closer, and see that they have been
girdled, by scratching pigs.
I would encourage you to check out silky chickens.
the older types, not show birds, that can actually see.
they are small, almost totally flightless, and they DO scratch, but only on
surface, they don't have the muscle to dig down deep.
Amy
NC

On Mon, Feb 7, 2011 at 2:34 AM, Leslie Moyer <unschooler at lrec.org> wrote:

> I'm looking for specific information about using pigs and chickens (and/or
> ducks, turkeys, guineas, etc.) for orchard floor management (controlling
> vegetation under trees) and insect control in an organic orchard.  Does
> anyone know of resources or people they could point me toward where I might
> learn more about that?  I read of an organic orchard co-op in Wisconsin
> where they're doing that and I've found and heard brief mentions here and
> there of other instances that are all void of details, but I need some more
> specific "how-to" information about replicating it.  I even read about the
> U. of MI doing research in this field, but I still can't track down any
> details.
>
> Thanks for any leads,
>
> -Leslie / NE Oklahoma
> __________________
> nafex mailing list
> nafex at lists.ibiblio.org
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> blogs, web sites or any other web resource. Permission to reproduce is NEVER
> granted, so don't claim you have permission!
> NAFEX web site: http://www.nafex.org/
>


------------------------------

Message: 16
Date: Mon, 7 Feb 2011 07:51:34 -0600
From: Alex Jokela <alex at camulus.com>
To: North American Fruit Explorers <nafex at lists.ibiblio.org>
Subject: Re: [NAFEX] Chocolate is the new super fruit,	claim Hershey
	scientists [OT]
Message-ID: <932EBB50-CA21-447B-A0D3-68E5F6205687 at camulus.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=windows-1252

Off topic (for the list), but there is a relatively new book called "Chocolate 
Wars" by Deborah Cadbury

http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1586488201?ie=UTF8&tag=imgfus02-20&linkCode=as2&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1586488201

It outlines and details the rivalries between the chocolate companies of the 
late 1800s/early 1900s.

Interestingly enough, health claims with chocolate are nothing new.  


 -acj

--
Alex C. Jokela
alex.jokela at camulus.com

http://snowshoe-farm.com/blog
Bees, Gardening, and More.





On Feb 7, 2011, at 7:17 AM, mIEKAL aND wrote:

> (if only I could figure out how to grow cacao as a container plant,
> I've never been able to keep one alive for more than a couple years)
> 
> Chocolate is the new super fruit, claim Hershey scientists
> 
> http://www.nutraingredients.com/Research/Chocolate-is-the-new-super-fruit-claim-Hershey-scientists
> 
> By Jane Byrne, 07-Feb-2011
> 
> 
> Cocoa powder and dark chocolate has equivalent polyphenol content and
> greater antioxidant and flavanol content than various super fruits,
> claims a new study by research scientists based at the Hershey Center
> for Health and Nutrition.
> 
> Research suggests chocolate can deliver a bigger antioxidant payload
> than some so-called super fruits
> The authors, who published their findings in the Chemistry Central
> Journal said that their results indicate that cacao seeds thus provide
> nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient
> composition and thus should be termed ?super fruit?.
> 
> The fruit pulp of the Theobroma cacao pod that surrounds its seeds can
> be consumed; however the vast majority of people have only consumed
> the seed-derived portion of cacao in the form of cocoa powder or
> chocolate. So the goal of the study, said the Hershey scientists, was
> to compare cocoa powder and chocolate, products representing the
> commonly eaten portion of the cacao fruit, with powders and juices
> from so-called ?Super Fruits?.
> 
> Cocoa powder and chocolate were compared with powders derived from
> acai, blueberry, cranberry, and pomegranate, continued the authors, on
> measures of antioxidant activity, as measured by oxygen radical
> absorbance capacity (ORAC (?M TE/g)), total polyphenol content (TP
> (mg/g)), and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g)).
> 
> (more online)
> __________________
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the list here:
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blogs, web sites or any other web resource. Permission to reproduce is NEVER 
granted, so don't claim you have permission!
> NAFEX web site: http://www.nafex.org/



------------------------------

Message: 17
Date: Mon, 07 Feb 2011 09:12:36 -0500
From: Douglas Woodard <dwoodard at becon.org>
To: nafex at lists.ibiblio.org
Subject: [NAFEX] The apple forests of Almaty
Message-ID: <4D4FFDD4.5050001 at becon.org>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1; format=flowed

See
<http://davesgarden.com/guides/articles/view/3125/>

You may need to wait a bit for the article to come up.

Doug Woodard
St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada


------------------------------

Message: 18
Date: Mon, 7 Feb 2011 08:24:39 -0600
From: mIEKAL aND <qazingulaza at gmail.com>
To: North American Fruit Explorers <nafex at lists.ibiblio.org>
Subject: Re: [NAFEX] The apple forests of Almaty
Message-ID:
	<AANLkTimATO63r2VSm8hZLs2f3SYhmGTSPWh3WuySNX7D at mail.gmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1

How is it possible that most of apple genetics are from two trees?

"And here is the most amazing thing yet:  These apple trees are the
source of all apples in the world!  The results of a genetic
sequencing of the trees by researchers* show that the apple forests of
Kazakhstan are without a doubt the birthplace of the apple.  In fact,
at this point, it looks like 90% of the world's apples are descendants
of just two trees."

~mIEKAL

On Mon, Feb 7, 2011 at 8:12 AM, Douglas Woodard <dwoodard at becon.org> wrote:
> See
> <http://davesgarden.com/guides/articles/view/3125/>
>
> You may need to wait a bit for the article to come up.
>
> Doug Woodard
> St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada
> __________________
> nafex mailing list
> nafex at lists.ibiblio.org
> Subscribe, unsubscribe, change your user configuration or find out more
> about the list here:
> http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/nafex
> Reproduction of list messages or archives is not allowed. This includes
> distribution on other email lists, groups or web forums and reproduction on
> blogs, web sites or any other web resource. Permission to reproduce is NEVER
> granted, so don't claim you have permission!
> NAFEX web site: http://www.nafex.org/
>


------------------------------

Message: 19
Date: Mon, 7 Feb 2011 08:37:41 -0600
From: "Mark Angermayer" <hangermayer at isp.com>
To: "NAFEX" <nafex at lists.ibiblio.org>
Subject: Re: [NAFEX] Keeping the NAFEX list on topic.
Message-ID: <002301cbc6d4$b86cde20$c92df504 at computer5>
Content-Type: text/plain;	charset="iso-8859-1"

Hi Lawrence,

I apologize for posting one last post on this topic, but I've been on this
list a long time and wanted to publicly say goodbye to some friends I've
never met in person, but nevertheless have had great discussions about
fruit, for which I'm grateful.

I think I'll go ahead and ask you to remove me from the list please.  Don't
misunderstand, I'm not mad or anything.  My interests have slowly been
moving away from the direction of Nafex for some time, which is why I
haven't renewed my subscription this year.

Namely, I'm more interested in commercial fruit production instead of fruit
exploration.    I also use pesticides which is at variance with most on this
list.  Additionally, I already receive about 5 different fruit newsletters
online, plus two trade magazines (one online, and one paper), and I'm on
another fruit forum.  I can barely keep up with all the reading as it is.
Finally, I don't want to be a sponge receive the emails from this list, when
I'm not standing any of the cost.  It's time for me to move on.

Nafex is a great organization and a great bunch of people.  I don't know how
I'd have gotten started without all of you.  I wish you all the best.

Sincerely,
Mark Angermayer
Tubby Fruits
Bucyrus KS
mark at tubbyfruits.com

----- Original Message ----- 
From: "Lawrence F. London, Jr." <>
To: <nafex at lists.ibiblio.org>
Sent: Monday, February 07, 2011 6:10 AM
Subject: [NAFEX] Keeping the NAFEX list on topic.


>
> Nafex list subscribers:
>
> I would like to end this thread on list management issues; I started it
> and we unfortunately lost a valued list subscriber because of that.
> Could we also eliminate all trivial chat and off topic messages,
> i.e. take them to private email to help keep this forum strictly on
> topic as it has mostly been since it began, with a high signal to noise
> ratio.
>
> Also, I was instructed to subscribe non NAFEX members to this list as
> well as bona fide members. So, those of you who are not in NAFEX should
> remember the purpose of this forum and respect the needs of those that
> are and are here with the intent of using the time they invest in list
> participation wisely. Trivial chit chat offers little or no appeal to
> must subscribers.
>
> As for sending file attachments to this list and the load it imposes on
> subscribers with slow internet access:
>
> 1) I prefer allowing attachments up to 2 mb in size
> 2) If you are not a Nafex member and have access to dsl but turn it down
> then I doubt you should be allowed any special consideration regarding
> attachments.
> 3) If you are a NAFEX member and have 56k dialup access and have a
> problem with attachments then please get in touch with me by private
> email at: lflj at bellsouth.net as I feel your needs deserve special
> consideration.
> 4) I hope soon to have a closed, non-public SMF webforum up and running
> for subscribers to this list only, to use specifically for upload and
> exchange of files attached to messages in threads, i.e. any size images,
> videos and various sorts of documents. I will announce this to the list
> once, as soon as it is ready for use. I hope to set this up at ibiblio
> (www.ibiblio.org/nafex/smf/nafex-forum) but it may have to be located
> elsewhere. Do I need permission from NAFEX to do this? Please reply to
> me privately about this (lflj at bellsouth.net).
> 5) I hope this will be my final admin message to this list; future ones
> will happen only in dire list emergencies.
>
> Thanks very much for your help and feedback.
>
> Lawrence London
> Co-Admin NAFEX list
> lflj at bellsouth.net
>
> __________________
> nafex mailing list
> nafex at lists.ibiblio.org
> Subscribe, unsubscribe, change your user configuration or find out more
about the list here:
> http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/nafex
> Reproduction of list messages or archives is not allowed. This includes
distribution on other email lists, groups or web forums and reproduction on
blogs, web sites or any other web resource. Permission to reproduce is NEVER
granted, so don't claim you have permission!
> NAFEX web site: http://www.nafex.org/



------------------------------

Message: 20
Date: Mon, 7 Feb 2011 09:57:34 -0500
From: Road's End Farm <organic87 at frontiernet.net>
To: North American Fruit Explorers <nafex at lists.ibiblio.org>
Subject: Re: [NAFEX] orchard+pigs+chickens
Message-ID: <CE27E098-F2AC-4CC5-8F1D-6FB6CEF86274 at frontiernet.net>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII; format=flowed; delsp=yes


On Feb 7, 2011, at 2:34 AM, Leslie Moyer wrote:

> I'm looking for specific information about using pigs and chickens  
> (and/or ducks, turkeys, guineas, etc.) for orchard floor management  
> (controlling vegetation under trees) and insect control in an  
> organic orchard.  Does anyone know of resources or people they could  
> point me toward where I might learn more about that?

I think there's been less work done in this area since all the  
commotion about potential E coli transmission from fresh manure. To  
meet current organic standards you could only have the livestock in  
the orchard during parts of the year (raw manure must be incorporated  
into the soil at least 90 days before harvest of a crop that doesn't  
touch the soil, 120 days before harvest of a crop that does touch the  
soil.) If you have a lot of different varieties of different fruits in  
the same orchard, and therefore a long harvest season, there might not  
be much of the year when you could have livestock in the orchard and  
still meet the standards. However, if you've got a relatively short  
harvest season, or can fence off specific portions of the orchard, you  
might be able to make it work.

What about a chicken tractor? That would let you keep the birds in  
specific areas, and would also keep them out of the trees.

-- Rivka; Finger Lakes NY, Zone 5 mostly
Fresh-market organic produce, small scale





------------------------------

Message: 21
Date: Mon, 07 Feb 2011 10:07:47 -0500
From: Douglas Woodard <dwoodard at becon.org>
To: nafex at lists.ibiblio.org
Subject: [NAFEX] Apple collecting in Turkey in 1999, Malus orientalis,
	disease resistance
Message-ID: <4D500AC3.3080808 at becon.org>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1; format=flowed

See
<http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/pubs/press/1999/turkey.html>

Doug Woodard
St. Catharines, Ontario


------------------------------

Message: 22
Date: Mon, 7 Feb 2011 10:11:52 -0500
From: Deb S <debs913 at gmail.com>
To: nafex at lists.ibiblio.org
Subject: [NAFEX] Identifying a pear
Message-ID:
	<AANLkTinWe1QyecRF6wcaVFLst1JqKshmT+ouoZkqyHdr at mail.gmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1

After a decade of having no success growing pears (I've killed 8 trees), I
FOUND a pear tree along the edge of the woods on my farm.  It set fruit this
year, small, russeted, very gritty pears.  With no pollinizer and no special
treatment, I harvested a bucket of somewhat ugly, but still useful pears.

I am wondering how to go about identifying this pear?  It is larger than a
Seckel, but smaller than a Bartlett if that is any help :)

deb
SE Ohio
Zone 6ish


------------------------------

Message: 23
Date: Mon, 7 Feb 2011 09:12:17 -0600
From: mIEKAL aND <qazingulaza at gmail.com>
To: North American Fruit Explorers <nafex at lists.ibiblio.org>
Subject: Re: [NAFEX] question about heartnuts..
Message-ID:
	<AANLkTi=fN8e191CAo+ifxn=tzup=WqLpdqTs=JHYLDuf at mail.gmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1

I'm probably not hardy enough to grow heartnuts & I have a lot
buartnuts (heartnut x butternut) going & I absolutely love the trees &
the nuts.  I would recommend growing selected cultivars over seedling
trees, as there is huge variation in seedling buartnuts.  Not sure if
that is also the case with heartnuts since they are not a cross but I
imagine there are some cultivars that would crack out a lot easier.

~mIEKAL

On Sun, Feb 6, 2011 at 7:47 PM, Amelia Hayner <abhayner at gmail.com> wrote:
> are they viable here in coastal plains of NC?
> do they require pollination? We have several large pecan trees-- I read that
> heartnuts grow quickly and have a spreading habit.
> I have a place for a tree like that! A spot where we could use some shade.
> any opinions welcome, here.
> thanks!
> Amy
> (we want to keep our squirrels happy)
> __________________


------------------------------

Message: 24
Date: Mon, 7 Feb 2011 10:21:35 -0500
From: Claude Jolicoeur <cjoli at gmc.ulaval.ca>
To: North American Fruit Explorers <nafex at lists.ibiblio.org>
Subject: Re: [NAFEX] Identifying a pear
Message-ID: <3.0.1.32.20110207102135.01125c80 at pop.ulaval.ca>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1"

Probably is a No-Name pear, i.e. a seedling that naturally grew there,
unless you have strong evidence it is a grafted tree that was planted there...
It would probably be a good base for you to graft a few more interesting
varieties on it.
Claude


A 10:11 11.02.07 -0500, vous avez ?crit :
>After a decade of having no success growing pears (I've killed 8 trees), I
>FOUND a pear tree along the edge of the woods on my farm.  It set fruit this
>year, small, russeted, very gritty pears.  With no pollinizer and no special
>treatment, I harvested a bucket of somewhat ugly, but still useful pears.
>
>I am wondering how to go about identifying this pear?  It is larger than a
>Seckel, but smaller than a Bartlett if that is any help :)
>
>deb
>SE Ohio
>Zone 6ish


------------------------------

Message: 25
Date: Mon, 7 Feb 2011 07:27:31 -0800 (PST)
From: william Eggers <wce1482 at yahoo.com>
To: North American Fruit Explorers <nafex at lists.ibiblio.org>
Subject: Re: [NAFEX] orchard+pigs+chickens
Message-ID: <940461.32896.qm at web113512.mail.gq1.yahoo.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=iso-8859-1

We are not organic, but we do use chickens in our orchard.? They are free range 
and have access to the orchard at all times.? We have found that it does 
decrease the insect populations.

--- On Mon, 2/7/11, Leslie Moyer <unschooler at lrec.org> wrote:


From: Leslie Moyer <unschooler at lrec.org>
Subject: [NAFEX] orchard+pigs+chickens
To: "North American Fruit Explorers" <nafex at lists.ibiblio.org>
Date: Monday, February 7, 2011, 1:34 AM


I'm looking for specific information about using pigs and chickens (and/or 
ducks, turkeys, guineas, etc.) for orchard floor management (controlling 
vegetation under trees) and insect control in an organic orchard.? Does anyone 
know of resources or people they could point me toward where I might learn more 
about that?? I read of an organic orchard co-op in Wisconsin where they're doing 
that and I've found and heard brief mentions here and there of other instances 
that are all void of details, but I need some more specific "how-to" information 
about replicating it.? I even read about the U. of MI doing research in this 
field, but I still can't track down any details.

Thanks for any leads,

-Leslie / NE Oklahoma
__________________
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Subscribe, unsubscribe, change your user configuration or find out more about 
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granted, so don't claim you have permission!
NAFEX web site: http://www.nafex.org/



      

------------------------------

Message: 26
Date: Mon, 7 Feb 2011 10:56:00 -0500
From: Amelia Hayner <abhayner at gmail.com>
To: North American Fruit Explorers <nafex at lists.ibiblio.org>
Subject: Re: [NAFEX] Identifying a pear
Message-ID:
	<AANLkTinuppNZk2BHkSyWgyZVmd=wKSLXCUwojAqa97n8 at mail.gmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1

there are people out there that swear if you can throw it at a dog, and do
bodily injury, that it's a Keiffer.
BTW- stubby little Keiffer pears, are delicious if you let them sit in the
barn awhile, and then can them in a syrup.
Amy
NC

On Mon, Feb 7, 2011 at 10:11 AM, Deb S <debs913 at gmail.com> wrote:

> After a decade of having no success growing pears (I've killed 8 trees), I
> FOUND a pear tree along the edge of the woods on my farm.  It set fruit
> this
> year, small, russeted, very gritty pears.  With no pollinizer and no
> special
> treatment, I harvested a bucket of somewhat ugly, but still useful pears.
>
> I am wondering how to go about identifying this pear?  It is larger than a
> Seckel, but smaller than a Bartlett if that is any help :)
>
> deb
> SE Ohio
> Zone 6ish
> __________________
> nafex mailing list
> nafex at lists.ibiblio.org
> Subscribe, unsubscribe, change your user configuration or find out more
> about the list here:
> http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/nafex
> Reproduction of list messages or archives is not allowed. This includes
> distribution on other email lists, groups or web forums and reproduction on
> blogs, web sites or any other web resource. Permission to reproduce is NEVER
> granted, so don't claim you have permission!
> NAFEX web site: http://www.nafex.org/
>


------------------------------

Message: 27
Date: Mon, 07 Feb 2011 10:57:02 -0600
From: "Alex C. Jokela" <alex at camulus.com>
To: North American Fruit Explorers <nafex at lists.ibiblio.org>
Subject: [NAFEX] SweeTango Apple Court Case
Message-ID: <xvsejqpswebgv4lv5nx0ddre.1297097822149 at email.android.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=utf-8

Judge rejects most of SweeTango suit - http://bit.ly/fnewi7 

Alex C Jokela
alex.jokela at camulus.com


Douglas Woodard <dwoodard at becon.org> wrote:

>See
><http://davesgarden.com/guides/articles/view/3125/>
>
>You may need to wait a bit for the article to come up.
>
>Doug Woodard
>St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada
>__________________
>nafex mailing list
>nafex at lists.ibiblio.org
>Subscribe, unsubscribe, change your user configuration or find out more about 
the list here:
>http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/nafex
>Reproduction of list messages or archives is not allowed. This includes 
distribution on other email lists, groups or web forums and reproduction on 
blogs, web sites or any other web resource. Permission to reproduce is NEVER 
granted, so don't claim you have permission!
>NAFEX web site: http://www.nafex.org/

------------------------------

Message: 28
Date: Mon, 7 Feb 2011 12:06:27 -0500
From: Deb S <debs913 at gmail.com>
To: North American Fruit Explorers <nafex at lists.ibiblio.org>
Subject: Re: [NAFEX] Identifying a pear
Message-ID:
	<AANLkTi=BJ3+RheO2oMKdvbAhScUR0Hg33R=Dn7nB0fBL at mail.gmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1

LOL---actually, my dogs were great for finding drops in the long pasture
grass--as long as I was quick enough to get the pears before they could eat
them!

I have canned them, just working up the nerve to eat 'em :)

deb

On Mon, Feb 7, 2011 at 10:56 AM, Amelia Hayner <abhayner at gmail.com> wrote:

> there are people out there that swear if you can throw it at a dog, and do
> bodily injury, that it's a Keiffer.
> BTW- stubby little Keiffer pears, are delicious if you let them sit in the
> barn awhile, and then can them in a syrup.
> Amy
> NC
>
> On Mon, Feb 7, 2011 at 10:11 AM, Deb S <debs913 at gmail.com> wrote:
>
> > After a decade of having no success growing pears (I've killed 8 trees),
> I
> > FOUND a pear tree along the edge of the woods on my farm.  It set fruit
> > this
> > year, small, russeted, very gritty pears.  With no pollinizer and no
> > special
> > treatment, I harvested a bucket of somewhat ugly, but still useful pears.
> >
> > I am wondering how to go about identifying this pear?  It is larger than
> a
> > Seckel, but smaller than a Bartlett if that is any help :)
> >
> > deb
> > SE Ohio
> > Zone 6ish
> > __________________
> > nafex mailing list
> > nafex at lists.ibiblio.org
> > Subscribe, unsubscribe, change your user configuration or find out more
> > about the list here:
> > http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/nafex
> > Reproduction of list messages or archives is not allowed. This includes
> > distribution on other email lists, groups or web forums and reproduction
> on
> > blogs, web sites or any other web resource. Permission to reproduce is
> NEVER
> > granted, so don't claim you have permission!
> > NAFEX web site: http://www.nafex.org/
> >
> __________________
> nafex mailing list
> nafex at lists.ibiblio.org
> Subscribe, unsubscribe, change your user configuration or find out more
> about the list here:
> http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/nafex
> Reproduction of list messages or archives is not allowed. This includes
> distribution on other email lists, groups or web forums and reproduction on
> blogs, web sites or any other web resource. Permission to reproduce is NEVER
> granted, so don't claim you have permission!
> NAFEX web site: http://www.nafex.org/
>


------------------------------

Message: 29
Date: Mon, 7 Feb 2011 12:09:25 -0500
From: Road's End Farm <organic87 at frontiernet.net>
To: North American Fruit Explorers <nafex at lists.ibiblio.org>
Subject: Re: [NAFEX] pear pie
Message-ID: <D2A7453E-0F46-449F-8B06-258FE9EC59EA at frontiernet.net>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII; format=flowed; delsp=yes


Just to note, because I'm surprised how rarely people do this: pears  
make a great pie. Just slice them into the crust (no need to peel in  
my opinion, but tastes vary), add sugar and nutmeg to taste and a  
little flour to soak up excess juices, bake like apple pie.


-- Rivka; Finger Lakes NY, Zone 5 mostly
Fresh-market organic produce, small scale





------------------------------

Message: 30
Date: Mon, 7 Feb 2011 12:11:38 -0600
From: "Richard Wagner" <rewagner at centurytel.net>
To: "North American Fruit Explorers" <nafex at lists.ibiblio.org>
Subject: Re: [NAFEX] The apple forests of Almaty
Message-ID: <7A4247231FE944D2A73BB4E33B43326C at RichardPC>
Content-Type: text/plain; format=flowed; charset="iso-8859-1";
	reply-type=original

Why should it be surprising? All the human genetics are from just two 
people.

-----Original Message----- 
From: mIEKAL aND
Sent: Monday, February 07, 2011 8:24 AM
To: North American Fruit Explorers
Subject: Re: [NAFEX] The apple forests of Almaty

How is it possible that most of apple genetics are from two trees?

"And here is the most amazing thing yet:  These apple trees are the
source of all apples in the world!  The results of a genetic
sequencing of the trees by researchers* show that the apple forests of
Kazakhstan are without a doubt the birthplace of the apple.  In fact,
at this point, it looks like 90% of the world's apples are descendants
of just two trees."

~mIEKAL

On Mon, Feb 7, 2011 at 8:12 AM, Douglas Woodard <dwoodard at becon.org> wrote:
> See
> <http://davesgarden.com/guides/articles/view/3125/>
>
> You may need to wait a bit for the article to come up.
>
> Doug Woodard
> St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada
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