Richard J. Ossolinski
osso at acadia.net
Sat Apr 28 08:06:33 EDT 2001
Probably more than you wanted, but perhaps this will help. Scroll to the end
to see the message that elicited this response from John Mosko at Englehard
Corp (manufacturers of Surround.)
> Gosh Lee, wish you had given us a call earlier for guidance. Sorry that
> you had trouble.
> With any new technology, there are benefits and there are going to be
> challenges, if the benefits outweigh any problems, the technology will
> fly. So far we've been very, very lucky with the particle film technology
> and problems have been solvable.
> Lee, if you are up to trying it again, for your case, I suggest maybe a
> Honeycrisp or Jonagold trial that uses applications starting at petal fall
> - and then cut off sprays earlier, or, consider ways to improve the fruit
> cleaning. You may try it on your Hawkeye for the fun of it. I explain
> more below.
> I'll comment, off the cuff, on the points you brought up...
> Sunburn - No doubt, Surround WP cuts sunburn damage dramatically,
> importantly, while increasing or, at least, not reducing photosynthesis.
> The hotter and less humid the region, the more potential payback. Studies
> and grower results in 1999 and 2000 in hot apple growing regions around
> the world show at least 50% and up to 60 to 80% reduction in damage. Even
> in the coolest of seasons like 1999, severe sunburn damage in WA is still
> around 10%. In most years, and on some cultivars, the severe damage
> approaches 20%, and can be higher. CA damage would be even higher.
> Surround WP can give a nice investment payback - $60 to 100 worth of
> Surround WP sprays for sunburn can pay 10 to 20X on sunburn damage
> reduction (not to mention cutting down on insect damage during the
> treatment period). About half of current Surround WP commercial use thus
> far is for sunburn reduction on apples mostly in the western US and we
> expect this application to grow sharply based on this season's success.
> Mixing - We have heard of a handful of growers having problems with mixing
> in the powder but the vast majority have no problems at all. The most
> common reasons are low agitation, weak pump returns, or adding the powder
> too fast. We have a Spray Guide which offers tips. To give guidance, we'll
> need to know the specifics of the sprayer.
> Color - Our data and experience is that color usually improves, i.e.,
> redder red apples and greener green apples, or at least neutral. I don't
> know what to make of your experience. Staymans, Empire, and Pink Lady in
> particular have been seen to be redder. We don't 'push' the color
> improvement benefit. To determine predictable color effects you really
> need to do replicated studies in multiple years, in multiple regions - then
> there are all the cultivars. This is very costly and time-consuming
> research, obviously.
> We learned in 'Empire' studies that color improvement is linked to
> applications made from petal fall to about the 5th or 6th cover.
> Curiously, this immediate post-petal fall period coverage is crucial for
> color improvement with Surround WP.
> Washing - Yeh, can't win right? Some say it washes off the trees too
> easily and then there's the post-harvest washing issue.
> Here's the skinny on Surround WP washing off:
> Surround had a limited launch in 1999 and Surround WP became fully
> commercial in 2000 and we've already treated a heck of a lot of apples,
> pears, and lemons (over 60,000 acre treatments in 2000). At least 50
> packing lines have handled it and yes, especially in 1999, a few of the 50
> had problems. Most of the problems have been worked out based on our
> advice and I've heard next to no complaints in 2000 (a few packing houses
> with short lines did not take Surround-treated fruit because they feel that
> they can't clean it at present).
> Packing lines with sufficient brush beds, a dump tank in which to add
> optional fruit washing detergent, and, best of all, high pressure washing
> have no problems at all. Fruit wax, if you use it, makes any faint haze
> Based on the economic benefits like the one mentioned above in sunburn, or
> the dramatic increase in yield for organic growers, an economical retro-fit
> of high pressure sprays would be very easily justified. Our standard
> literature packet has a Fruit Washing Guide that is loaded with tips on
> fruit washing. Get one at www.surround.engelhard.com
> If you don't wash at all you can apply from petal fall and go until about
> the 4th to 6th cover, then you'll have to stop. This early-only program
> cuts 1st generation codling moth and early plum curculio damage and also
> may lead to better color - see color comments above.
> By the way, traces of Surround WP are not a problem health wise. Surround
> WP is composed of ingredients used in food and it is considered to be
> "exempt from requirements of a tolerance for residues." So Surround WP
> residues on processing apples are not at issue.
> Consumers - Clearly, you want to sell clean fruit without a white
> appearance to consumers and successful washing, or cutting off late season
> sprays hopefully will take care of that.
> I have seen growers turn the white orchard treatments into a positive. To
> aid growers and packers in explaining this new product, we have a
> newly-available consumer-oriented flyer called "Why are the crops white?"
> It explains, in a non-technical way, the benefits to growers and comments
> favorably on basic safety and environment questions. It can also be
> requested on www.surround.engelhard.com
> While I'm at it, a few updates:
> Plum Curculio - Is Surround WP a solution for organic plum curculio
> management? There's no doubt that Surround WP has a strong ovipositional
> deterrent effect on PC and we've labeled it for 'suppression." The key is
> to build a coating onto the young fruitlet and reapply if it is unusually
> Here's what we've seen in 2000 trials: In MI, NY, and New England this
> season was extremely rainy right around petal fall. Some locations in NY
> had precipitation, I believe, 10 straight days around petal fall. Light
> rains are not as much a problem but if the applications were not
> supplemented after heavy rains, efficacy dropped off from 1999 results
> (interestingly, other pesticide efficacy dropped off as well in one study).
> Growers that kept the coating on had very good suppresion. Another grower
> observed that the coverage must be maintained through the entire
> ovipositional period; and this is true. A grower said that applications
> late in the bloom period seemed to keep the PC out of the orchard even
> before fruit set.
> What about rainfastness? We had to design Surround WP so that it is
> reasonably rainfast while being friable enough to cling to insects and
> removable at harvest. This was a tough challenge.
> Surround protection is more residual that many think. In a rainy season,
> true, reapplications are necessary and 2000 was easily a worst case basis.
> In dry periods it lasts indefinitely, and efficacy on such pests as
> Japanese beetle appear to last far past the point where there is a highly
> visible film.
> A few points:
> Firstly, resist the temptation to add a sticker, this may cause more
> problems and reduce insect efficacy.
> Applications on the young fruitlets haven't developed yet into a rainfast
> film, hence the need for reapplication.
> Applications made in the month after petal fall are more apt to be lasting.
> Applications that begin in mid-summer don't generally adhere as well. So
> if applying for apple maggot, it would be better to start earlier rather
> than begin just before AM emergence.
> Growers are observing that lime-sulfur and wettable sulfur increase
> Lep Control - In general, I'd like to make it clear that leps are only
> partly suppressed. It has been observed that the first generations of
> codling moth and oriental fruit moth are significantly suppressed by
> Surround, but the second and "suicide" generation are not. Some attribute
> this to the egg laying habits of moths, i.e., the first generation lands
> near the fruit and get gummed up as it proceeds to the fruit. The later
> generations appear to land directly on the fruit, often near the calex and
> sting where Surround is less likely to be present. All in all, more or
> less 50% reduction of damage can be attained in a seasonal program.
> Supplements are necessary.
> Off Topic - Pears - For pear psylla, a successful control program starts
> with dormant oil, then use Surround WP for two to three pre-bloom sprays,
> again at PF, and continue with covers. If washing is at issue, simply
> switch to a different control after the second or third cover.
> Surround WP works as well or better, frankly, than anything else out there
> for pear psylla and has great economics compared to other programs. This
> is another solid commercial success for Surround WP.
> Rainfastness on pears, by the way, is much better than apple. Adhesion on
> pear is better and the psylla nymphs inhabit the leaf undersides where
> Surround doesn't wash off as easily. Psylla studies in the rainy 2000
> season in the eastern US still showed control.
> Research in Progress - Diseases - Surround WP, by itself, is not
> efficacious on many diseases but new data suggests another possible value
> of Surround. A replicated study on 'Delicious' done in WV shows marked
> improvement of fungus control with sulfur compounds when tankmixed with
> Surround WP. Scab, powdery mildew, sooty blotch, and flyspeck control were
> all significantly improved in this experiment that used 1/2 gallon of
> lime-sulfur (calcium polysulfide liquid) and 4 lbs of wettable sulfur per
> 50 lbs of Surround WP in 100 gallons of water.
> 2000 Insect Data - Extension data is showing excellent control of apple
> maggot, Japanese beetle, lachynobia, and Rose Chafer with Surround WP.
> Research in Progress - Honeycrisp - In theory, I say in theory, Surround
> can be a benefit to this wonderfully crunchy but sometimes troublesome
> cultivar. Honeycrisp likes a cool climate and Surround will keep the tree
> cooler while thwarting leafhoppers and Japanese beetle. We will be
> studying this further to determine if Surround WP can benefit this cultivar
> and what timings/rates would be needed to accomplish this.
> Before using Surround products, I would suggest reading through our Guides,
> in essence this barrier-effect concept seems simple, but for best usage,
> there are key tips that you'll need to know.
> John Mosko
> Surround Crop Protectants
> Engelhard Corporation
> applehilorchard at webtv.net (Lee Elliott)@virtualorchard.net> on 11/02/2000
> 07:48:32 AM
> Please respond to "Apple-Crop" <apple-crop at virtualorchard.net>
> Sent by: <apple-crop at virtualorchard.net>
> To: apple-crop at virtualorchard.net (Apple-Crop)
> Subject: Apple-Crop: Re: Surround Trial
> This season I used Surround on a trial basis on 20 Honeycrisp , Galas,
> and Jonagold trees. It aparently reduced sunburn on all. However, it
> has it's own problems. This stuff is VERY hard to get mixed up in the
> sprayer and kept clogging the agitator. Fruit did'nt color up well
> compared to unsprayed trees, but the biggest problem (the killer) is
> that the stuff won't wash off well in the packing line. A film of
> material in the stem cavity won't wash out, making the apple look like
> a fungus is down in the stem cavity, Bad enough customers don't want
> these apples. Some remarked that they thought it might be chemical
> residue and passed these over. It doesn't wash off in rain either,
> contrary to what some have said. If someone can figure out how to get
> this product out of the stem cavity they may be on to something. I
> doubt I will use it again.
------------------------ Yahoo! Groups Sponsor ---------------------~-~>
ClubMom is the first free organization dedicated to rewarding and celebrating Moms! Join today - it's free - and get your chance to win
in our $5,000 Family Vacation Sweepstakes!
Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
More information about the nafex