[B-Greek] Passive Imperative
Harold R. Holmyard III
hholmyard at ont.com
Sun Aug 14 18:15:00 EDT 2005
>>HH: I feel quite comfortable with the middle-passive classification
>>of verbs since Hebrew Niphal and Hithpael verbs can both be passive
>>or middle. Context gives guidance as to which it is. But what about
>>forms in Greek where there is a difference between middle and passive
>>forms? There I would not expect flexibility, since otherwise why have
>>a distinction in forms.
>The question is a fair one, but it is one that I have dealt with in
>what I have written both on-list and in my writings listed at the
>page noted in my initial response in this thread. Those who don't
>want to take the trouble to read those writings may -- and
>unquestionably will -- go right on believing that there is a
>consistent difference between those forms.
>There are, indeed, some instances of verbs where there is a clear
>distinction of meaning between middle and passive forms, but to a
>considerable measure such a distinction is elusive, even imaginary.
>There exist NT grammars that display in their appendices paradigms
>of LUW with both middle and passive aorist forms, despite the fact
>that the middle aorist of LUW does not appear in the Koine of the
>GNT. The truth is that the "passive" forms in -QHN were in the
>process of supplanting the older forms in -MHN and that the same
>semantic ambivalence attached to the -QHN forms as does to the MAI
>Three significant instances (there are others) of GNT verbs that
>display both a middle and a "passive" (-QH-) aorist form are pretty
> AGALLIAOMAI is really a middle-voice verb; there are two
>instances of the active in the GNT, one of these aorist (HGALLIASEN)
>in Lk 1:47; there are 8 instances of the middle voice, 4 in the
>present tense and 4 in the aorist; there is one single instance of
>the passive aorist (AGALLIAQHNAI in John 5:55); I challenge whoever
>will to show me that there's any real difference of meaning between
>AGALLIAQHNAI and a putative AGALLIASASQAI.
HH: The one passive aorist does seem to be functioning in a middle
way. i believe the reference is John 5:35 though.
> GINOMAI appears 492x in the GNT; it is middle in 447 instances,
>"passive" (QH) in 45 instances; we have had threads on these aorists
>of GINOMAI in the GNT; I have argued that EGENOMHN and EGENHQHN both
>are used in the same way: each form may sometimes bear a sense that
>is more "passive" while at other times it may bear a sense that is
HH: Yes, I remember this thread and remember being convinced by your
arguments. See how we forget.
> APOKRINOMAI appears 220x in the aorist tense in the GNT, of
>these 7 instances are middle (APEKRINAMHN KTL.) while 213 are
>"passive" (APEKRIQHN). Wallace in GGBB tries to argue that the
>middle forms are in a forensic context and deliberately archaizing,
>but in fact the forensic usage appears with forms of APEKRIQHN KTL.
>just as much as with APEKRINAMHN KTL.
HH: Well, thanks for answering my question. You are kind to give so
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