[B-Greek] John 3:16
iver_larsen at sil.org
Fri Jun 18 06:16:12 EDT 2004
> > You may find the following excerpt from the NET note of interest:
> > "The Greek adverb hOUTWS can refer (1) to the degree to which God
> > loved the
> > world, that is, to such an extent or so much that he gave his own
> > Son (see
> > R. E. Brown, John [AB], 1:133-34; D. A. Carson, John, 204) or (2)
> > simply to
> > the manner in which God loved the world, i.e., by sending his own
> > son (see
> > R. H. Gundry and R. W. Howell, "The Sense and Syntax of John 3.14-17
> > with
> > Special Reference to the Use of hOUTWS...hWSTE in John 3.16," NovT
> > 41
> > : 24-39). Though the term more frequently refers to the manner
> > in
> > which something is done (see BAGD 597-98 s.v. hOUTWS, the following
> > clause
> > involving hWSTE plus the indicative (which stresses actual, but
> > [usually]
> > unexpected result) emphasizes the greatness of the gift God has
> > given."
> The translation "so much" is not only misleading, it is positively
> incorrect. Thus dispite the fact that in every other case it clearly
> indicates the manner in which something occurs, some would have it mean
> "so much" simply because they will it to be so. Here, as in the other
> cases, hOUTWS means "In this manner."
The crux of the matter relevant to b-greek and John 3:16 is that hWSTE in
the NT has been narrowed down from Classical Greek to refer to unexpected or
unusual results. This may be the result of hINA taking over part of the
function formerly reserved for hWSTE. This is not very well known, but I can
refer to the following research article:
On The Use Of hWSTE With The Infinitive - by Donna Fedukowski.
Selected technical articles related to translation, No. 14 (December 1985):
25-32. Dallas: SIL.
Since this publication is not widely accessible, let me quote parts of it:
Thus, grammarians seem to be agreed that hwste + the infinitive has at least
the function of indicating result and most indicate that it has two
functions: it can indicate purpose or result. However, this traditional
analysis of hWSTE does not answer all the questions about hWSTE + infinitive
that discourse analysis raises. What about the sentence, "He began teaching
them hWSTE they were astonished" (Matt. 13.54)? hWSTE here is not indicating
an ordinary cause-effect relationship. Astonishment is not the expected
result of teaching. Beekman, Callow, and Kopesec (1981) suggest that in this
case hWSTE is implying manner, that is, "he began teaching them (in such a
way) that they became astonished". Since the implied manner unit in this
example is descriptive of teaching, it is regarded as a delimitational
component of the Event concept (Beekman, Callow, and Kopesec 1981:99). But
is the main information to which the hWSTE clause relates really the event
"teach"? Consider the sentence "And great multitudes gathered about him,
hWSTE he got into a boat and sat down" (Matt. 13.2). Here, the hWSTE clause
does not pertain primarily to the event of gathering itself, that is, "they
gathered.and so he entered.". Rather, it pertains to some unusual quality of
the gathering, either the greatness of the multitudes, (that is, "the
multitude was so great that") or its enthusiasm ("they gathered with such
force that"). Or, consider Matthew 13:32 "(The mustard seed) becomes (such a
big) tree hWSTE the birds come and nest in its branches".
It is significant to note that in narrative material where hWSTE +
infinitive is indicating a reason-result relationship, there are some strong
1. A clause with hWSTE is never found to occur in sequence with another
clause with hWSTE. Where one would expect such a sequence to occur, hWSTE
appears only at the end of the sequence and introduces the climactic event
or description (for example, Luke 5.7: "And when they had done this, they
enclosed a great quantity of fish; DE their nets began to break; KAI they
signaled to their partners in the other boat for them to come and help them,
KAI they came, KAI they filled both the boats, hWSTE so that they began to
2. The "results" introduced by hWSTE are always unusual or extreme. For
example, Matthew 8.24: "there arose a great storm in the sea, hWSTE 'so
that' the boat was covered with the waves".
3. In fifteen out of twenty-seven examples, there is an *explicit* adjective
or adverb in the "reason", such as, "many", "great", or "very". For example,
Mark 2.2: "And many were gathered together, hWSTE there was no longer room,
even near the door." In the other examples there is a similar attributive
*implied*. See Matthew 13.32: above. In each case a "so" or "such" is also
implied (for example, "so many"). Thus, hWSTE corresponds in English to a
"so/such.that" construction where the "so/such" goes with an attribute (for
example, such big). This attribute will in turn be attached to a thing,
event, or attribute (for example, such a big tree). Which of the three it is
attached to does not seem to be particularly significant.
4. In some cases an element of contraexpectation is implied in the reason
clause preceding hWSTE, which could be expressed by the adverb
"unexpectedly" (and which may need to be spelled out more fully in a
translation). For example, Matthew 27.13,14: "Then Pilate said to Him, 'Do
you not hear how many things they testify against you?' And (unexpectedly)
He did not answer him with regard to even a single charge, hWSTE 'so that'
the governor was quite amazed."
5. As implied in section I.B. [QUOTED] above, the "result" is related not
primarily to the event in the "reason", but to the unusual manner of that
event or to the unusual size, quantity, or frequency of some feature
involved in the "reason". In fact, the "result" borders on a specific
relation, actually giving more information about the intensive attribute.
For example, "the storm was so violent (attribute) hWSTE the boat was
covered with waves" (Matt. 8.24). That the boat was covered with waves gives
more specific information about how violent the storm was. Thayer (1889:638)
makes a pertinent comment. He mentions that hWSTE with the infinitive is
sometimes preceded by the demonstrative hWSTE (Acts 14.1) or TOSOUTOS (Matt.
15.33), and where it occurs without such a demonstrative preceding, it
defines more accurately the magnitude, extent, or quantity. He cites the
Mt. viii.24, 28; xii.22; xiii.2, 32, 54; xv.31; xxvii.14; Mk. i.27, 45;
ii.2, 12; iii. 10, 20; iv.1, 32, 37; ix.26; xv.5; Lk. v.7; xii.1; Acts i.19;
v.15; xv.39; xvi.26; xix.10, 12, 16; Ro. vii.6; xv.19; 1 Co. 1.7; v.1;
xiii.2; 2 Co. 1.8; ii.7; iii.7; vii.7; Phil. i.13; 1 Th. i.7 sq.; 2 Th. 1.4;
ii.4; Heb. xiii.6; 1 Pet. i.21.
End of quotes.
This overlooked aspect of hWSTE does not only imply to hWSTE with
infinitive, but also to the very few cases where an indicative verb follows.
Apart from John 3:16, Gal 2:13 is an example of this (hWSTE KAI - so that
even - unexpectedly - Barnabas was carried away).
I hope this clarifies the issue.
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